Week/Module 4

This term has two major meanings. It refers to any single line of poetry or any composition written in separate lines of more or less regular rhythm, in contrast to prose.

The restatement in one’s own words of what one understands a poem to say or suggest. A paraphrase is similar to a summary, although not as brief or simple.

A brief condensation of the main idea or plot of a work. A summary is similar to a paraphrase but less detailed

The main topic of a work, whatever the work is about.

A generally recurring subject or idea noticeably evident in a literary work. Not all subjects in a work can be considered themes, only the central one.

Lyric poem
A short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. Often written in the first person, it traditionally has a songlike immediacy and emotional force.

Narrative poem
A poem that ells a story. Ballads and epics are two common forms of narrative poetry

Dramatic monologue
A poem written as a speech made by a character at some decisive moment. The speaker is usually addressing a silent listener.

Didactic poem
A poem intended to teach a moral lesson or impart a body of knowledge.

The mood or manner of expression in a literary work, which conveys an attitude toward the work’s subject, which may be playful, sarcastic, ironic, sad, solemn, or any other possible attitude. Tone helps to establish the reader’s relationship to the characters or ideas presented in the work.

Satiric poetry
Poetry that blends criticism with humor to convey a message, usually through the use of irony and a tone of detached amusement, withering contempt, and implied superiority.

Latin for mask. A fictitious character created by an author to be the speaker of a literary work.

In language, a discrepancy between what is said and what is meant. In life, a discrepancy between what is expected and what occurs.

Verbal irony
A mode of expression in which the speaker or writer says the opposite of what is really meant, such as saying Great story in response to a boring, pointless anecdote.

A style of bitter irony intended to hurt or mock its target.

Dramatic irony
A situation in which the larger implications of character’s words, actions, or situation are unrealized by that character but seen by the author and the reader or audience

Cosmic irony
The contrast between a character’s position or aspiration and the treatment he or she receives at the hands of a seemingly hostile fate; also called irony of fate.

The literal, dictionary meaning of a word

An association or additional meaning that word, image or phrase may carry, apart from its literal denotation or dictionary definition. A word may pick up connotations from the uses to which it has been put in the past.

A word or series of words that refers to any sensory experience (usually sight – visual imagery, although also sound – auditory imagery, smell, touch – tactile imagery, or taste). An image is a direct or literal recreation of physical experience and adds immediacy to literary language.

The collective set of images in a poem or other literary work.

A Japanese verse form that has three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables. Traditional haiku is often serious and spiritual in tone, relying mostly on imagery, and usually set (often by implication instead of direct statement) in one of the four seasons. Modern haiku in English often ignore strict syllable count and may have a more playful, worldly tone.

A comparison of two things, indicated by some connective, usually like, as, or than, or a verb such as resembles. A simile usually compares two things that initially seem unlike but are shown to have a significant resemblance. “Cool as a cucumber” and “My love is like a red, red rose” are examples of similes.

A statement that one thing is something else, which in a literal sense, it is not. A metaphor creates a close association between the two entities and underscores some important similarity between them. An example of metaphor is “Richard is a pig.”

Implied metaphor
A metaphor that uses neither connectives nor the verb to be. If we say “John crowed over his victory,” we imply metaphorically that John is a rooster but do not say so specifically.

Mixed metaphor
The (usually unintentional) combining of two or more incompatible metaphors, resulting in ridiculousness or nonsense. For example “Mary was such a tower of strength that she breezed her way through all the work” (towers do not breeze).

The endowing of a thing, an animal, or an abstract term with human characteristics. Personification dramatizes the nonhuman world in tangibly human terms.

A direct address to someone or something. In an apostrophe, a speaker may address an inanimate object, a dead or absent person, an abstract thing, or a spirit.

Also called hyperbole. Exaggeration used to emphasize a point.

An ironic figure of speech that deliberately describes something in a way that is less that the case.

Figure of speech in which that name of a thing is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. For instance, we might say “The White House decided” when we mean that the president did.

The use of a significant part of a thing to stand for the whole of it, or vice versa. Saying “wheels” for “car” is an example of synecdoche.

A statement that at first strikes one as self-contradictory, but that on reflection reveals some deeper sense. Paradox is often achieved by a play on words.

A person, place, or thing in a narrative that suggests meanings beyond its literal sense. Symbol is related to allegory, but it works more complexly. A symbol bears multiple suggestions and associations. It is unique to the work, not common to a culture.

A description – often a narrative – in which the literal events (person, place, thing) consistently point to a parallel sequence of ideas, values, or other recognizable abstractions. An allegory has two levels of meaning: a literal level that tells a surface story and a symbolic level in which the abstractions unfold.

Symbolic act
An action whose significance goes well beyond its literal meaning. In literature, symbolic acts often involve a primal or unconscious ritual element such as rebirth, purification, forgiveness, vengeance, or initiation.

Conventional symbols
Symbols that, because of their frequent use, have acquired a standard significance. They may range from complex metaphysical images such as those of Christian saints in Gothic art to social customs such as a young bride in a white dress. They are conventional symbols because they carry recognizable meanings and suggestions.

From the Italian, meaning “stopping-place” or “room.” A recurring pattern of two or more lines of verse, poetry’s equivalent to the paragraph in prose. the stanza is the basic or ganizational principle of most formal poetry.

Rime scheme
Any recurrent pattern of rime within an individual poem. A rime scheme is usually described by using lowercase letters to represent each end rime – a for the first rime, b for the second, and son – in the order in which the rimed words occur. The rime scheme of a stanza of common meter, for example, would be notated abab.

A word, phrase, line or stanza repeated at intervals in a song or poem. The repeated chorus of a song is a refrain.

Traditionally, a song that tells a story. Ballads are characteristically compressed, dramatic, and objective in their narrative style.

Folk ballads
Anonymous narrative songs, usually in ballad meter. They were originally created for oral performance, often resulting in many versions of a single ballad.

Ballad stanza
The most common pattern for a ballad, consisting of four lines rimed abcb, in which the first and third lines have four metrical feet (usually eight syllables) and the second and fourth lines have three feet (usually six syllables). Common meter, often used in hymns, is a variation rimed abab.

Literary ballad
A ballad not meant for singing, written by a sophisticated poet for educated readers, rather than arising from the anonymous oral tradition.

A type of folk music originally developed by African Americans in the South, often about some pain or loss. Blues lyrics traditionally consist of three-line stanzas in which two identical lines are followed by a third, riming line. The influence of the blues is fundamental in virtually all styles of contemporary pop – jazz, rap, rock, gospel, country, and rhythm and blues.

A popular style of music that emerged in the 1980’s in which lyrics are spoken or chanted over a steady beat, usually sampled or prerecorded. Rap lyrics are almost always rimed and very rhythmic – syncopating a heavy metrical beat in a manner similar to jazz.

Order in which images appear in a poem is called?
Image structure

Robert Frost is the author of?
The Road not Taken; Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

What is the primary method the speaker uses in this poem?

There is no frigate like a book
To take us lands away,
nor any coursers like a page
of prancing poetry.
This traverse may the poorest take
without oppress of toll
how frugal is the chariot
that bears a human soul!


The theme of this poem involves one’s innocence?

Emily Dickinson is the author of?
There is no Frigate like a book; It sifts from Leaden Sieves;

The images of the first, second, and third stanzas of this poem create and impression of early autumn, mid-autumn, and late autumn respectively.
“To Autumn” by John Keats

Irony is the major principle of interpretation in “The Chimney Sweeper.”

Saying wheels for car is an example of synecdoche.

Another name for overstatement is hyperbole

Defines poetry as “the synthesis of hyacinths and biscuits.”
Carl Sandburg

Defines poetry as “the music of the soul.”

A trope is a kind of metrical foot.

Imagery is the collective set of images in a poem or other literary work

The speaker of this poem asks God to “o’erthrow,” reclaim him as His own and “marry” him.
John Donne: Batter my heart, three personed God, for you

Cool as a cucumber
Opposite of euphony

Order in which ideas are expressed in a poem is
Rational structure

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