The main features of The New Deal

The New Deal was drafted in as a new era for the USA in 1933, it was further developed through the 30’s into what became a significant movement in US history.

The brand new President at the time, Franklin D. Roosevelt, introduced The New Deal to the USA with mixed reactions. The New Deal and FDR’s first 100 days as President Elect introduced The New Deal with a firm set of policies and ideas.

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“Relief, recovery and reform” was one of the main principles of The New Deal. It was to relieve the unemployed and the homeless after The Great Depression [1929’s "Wall Street Crash”], and the second New Deal [1[1934-1940]as focused upon reforming and rejuvenating the USA preventing further mishaps. The idea of government involvement was one played up by The New Deal; Democrats in power brought new shape and ideas to how things ran. This was the main reason behind The New Deal, to relieve the country, then to recover it and bring it into reformation, The New Deal was a revolution in American History.

One famous saying: “Action and action now” echoed through the supposed intentions of The New Deal, it was a revolution. Roosevelt’s plans and ideas were colossal in number; his main priority was to “put banks in a secure footing”. He had to renew his faith in the Capitalist banking system; he had to encourage people to invest in the industry. 4,000 banks collapsed, was a cure on the way? The Emergency Banking Act saw all banks closed for inspection, only banks fit to perform their duties correctly would be allowed to re-open. This decreased the number yet increased the efficiency of US banks.

There were many features in The New Deal, the country was reformed; The New Deal cut government spending, it stopped prohibition and the AAA [A[Agricultural Adjustment Act]educed and controlled farm production. The CCC was set up to bring 18-25 year olds back into employment, and the CWA provided public work jobs for the unemployed, which helped morale. The Federal Relief Administration helped citizens in poverty, the HOLC provided homer-owner loans, and the National Industrial Recovery Act boosted the economy. The New Deal was invaluable to the farmers and farming industry in general, the AAA, FCA, FSA and TVA were all acts kicked into motion to life US farms out of The Great Depression.

The Second New deal surfaced in 1934, its job was to rejuvenate and reform the USA, with the main problems out of the way, Roosevelt’s aim was to restore USA’s greatness and infamous pride, and to make sure another Great Depression wasn’t to surface.

The WPA [W[Works Progress Administration]as set up to get all the unemployed to work on projects valuable to the community, The Securities And Exchange Commission was created to prevent another “Wall Street Crash” and the National Labor Relations Act replace the aforementioned NIRA. A Social Securities Act was set up and a Soil Conservation act [w[which replace the aforementioned AAA]which was dubbed illegal by the Supreme Court. Lastly 1938 saw the Fair Labor Standards Act build up on 1933’s Wagner Act.

On the whole, the aims of the new deal were to build up on previous ideas and to steer the country to safety.

Franklin Roosevelt,  was elected President and played himself well and truly into popularity with the vast majority of the American public, he introduced his New Deal and it didn’t go down well with all, but why did he introduce this New Deal? It came about to save America.

Possibly the main factor, or at least the most well publicized reason for Roosevelt introducing The New Deal to the USA was to try and lift the country out of it’s Great economic Depression. October 1929’s “Wall Street Crash” saw USA’s finances and economy plummet and quite literally nose-dive the country into bankruptcy. USA had been shook greatly, the shockwaves and repercussions extended to all four corners of the globe, but USA was still the country worst hit by the disaster. FDR came into Presidency to save the USA, give hope. His New Deal was the perfect ploy to get the country back on its proverbial feet. The idea of The New Deal was to save the US banking system [t[the Emergency Banking Act played a big role in this]It was the most prominent problem being faced by the US as Roosevelt came into power, and it was his main aim to eliminate it.

The main things about reasons to introduce The New Deal is to look back, to see what America had been through prior to its introduction, it had suffered depression, failed politics and social conflict, racial and religious intolerance, the KKK a renowned group of religious extremists.

Prohibition was another problem the USA had to cope with in the 20’s, the banning of all sales and production of alcohol in the USA. Problems were further made by prohibitions as speakeasies came about, illegal production distribution and sales of alcohol were being made through the blind eye of the law, and crime rates were up, it even caused health problems due to unsanitary conditions in which the alcohol was produced.

There were many political problems throughout the 20’s, The Red Scare; there was communism, capitalism, The Palmer raids. These problems were all stuck in the mind of Roosevelt; these past problems were what he aimed to put a stop to with his New Deal, as obviously his vision of America’s future was gloomy, he saw these events of the 20’s reoccurring in the 30’s, and who knows, that may have happened, but Roosevelt’s New Deal was there to prevent it.

The very phrase personifies it: “The New Deal” – the main aim was to revolutionise the USA and stop further mishaps of the 20’s reoccurring.

(c) “The New Deal was not a complete success” – explain how far you agree with this statement.

1932 saw Franklin Delano Roosevelt voted into power and by the time 1933 came he had jumped in with both feet; The New Deal was a revolutionary movement and time period for the USA throughout the 30’s. Starting in 1933, The New Deal aimed to relieve the USA and absorb the impact of the Depression and various other problems with maximum dignity, then it its second phase The New Deal was to take the country by the helm and steer it to safety restoring all America’s pride. Was it much of a success?

The cutting of government spending was one of the first actions taken in The New Deal’s first phase. Ending prohibition was one of the best actions taken in the first phase of The New Deal; it brought in extra tax revenue to the cash-strapped government as well as reducing organized crime, as alcohol was now legal. So this was making The New Deal out as more of a success than often thought.

The CCC had mixed opinions, although it brought many into work, some saw it akin to Hitler’s Youth Movement, also the Trade Union workers accused it of exploiting young workers. The CWA provided further work for the unemployed, but again there was a downside, as many saw the jobs as useless, or “boondoggles”. The FERA provided cash relief but was dubbed morally wrong, as the money wasn’t borrowed, but given to the poor. The HOLC and NIRA both received warm welcomes with the US public, though. So this shows a well-rounded perspective of The USA’s reaction to the ideas of The New Deal, initially.

Also we cannot forget what The New Deal did to the American farming industry. Initially the AAA controlled the main aspects of farm production, despite its criticisms for interfering in the free market, the AAA did double farmers income. Also the TVA was set up to improve and develop a poor region across the seven states got the benefit of the community, to develop industry and to privde jobs for thousands of workers. The Tennessee valley was decimated, it lacked life, it had been drained due to depression, although just outside the infamous dustbowl of USA, it suffered just as bad, perhaps even worse, the TVA completely revamped the area and was one of The New Deal’s greatest accomplishments.

1934 and onwards saw The New Deal move on into its second phase, this phase was set up to revive America fully. The WPA put people to work on projects valuable to the community it was an unbridled success. The Securities and Exchange Commission prevented another “Wall Street Crash” to a good effect, regulating conduct of the stock exchange. The Wagner Act replaced the NIRA, and was soon to be replaced by the Fair Labor Standards Act, and all were a success, the SSA was a success, despite the trouble with Trade Unions and industrial unrest. Overall, thus far The New Deal is a success.

The New Deal was flawed though, and was exposed in many areas of its structure. The government was spending huge sums of public money on “unnecessary” projects and works, for one. The Federal Government and the President himself were into much power, and should have left things to individual states, The New Deal tried too hard, and ended up dictating, to an extent. It interfered a lot with business and industry, trying to change steadfast methods and procedures, and supposedly it destroyed all initiative of the US citizens.

The New Deal was interfering with business, it was becoming oo powerful for them, and the rich also disliked the new president, as they saw him as a threat to their wealth and their high status in society. The press and newspaper owners, journalists, as they do today, also did then, in picking faults at politics, accusing Roosevelt of his socialist acts even the word “communism” sprung up in reference to the president.

As well as that there was left wing opposition for the New Deal as well, from the poorer side of society. The New Deal allegedly did not do enough to help the poor and underprivileged. Huey Long one of the main enemies of the deal, by 1937 many saw Roosevelt as none less than a dictator.

The 1936 election was refreshing and it showed 46 of then the 48 states voting for The New Deal, Roosevelt was back in power.

So all that said, all of The New Deal’s pacts, acts and plans laid out in one, analysed fully for good and bad points, and having taken general points and attitudes toward The New Deal, was it “not a complete success”? The New Deal was open to criticism and had its flaws and wasn’t digested well by all the American public. However, on the whole, it must be realised that that The New Deal created many new ideas and plans, which helped revive America in all its aspects, so there is no correct answer. The New Deal had its successes but was flawed in places and did try to overpower too much. The New Deal was not a complete success, but it must be realized it was not a complete failure either ,as it did lift America in as many aspects as it may have brought it down, perhaps even more.

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