South Africa

Question 1

There were many changes brought about by apartheid. Three of these changes are:

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The bonte education act. This was where black people and white people had separate education. This was because people believed that white people would achieve more then black people. Within universities non-whites were not allowed to attend white universities. Also black people had to pay for their own equipment. Before this act black people were considered as intelligent as white people and were entitled to a free education just like white people.

Another change was the prohibition of mixed marriages act. This meant that different races were not allowed to get married or have intimate relationships with each other. It was considered unacceptable for white people to mix with non-whites. Before this act people of different races were allowed to mix and marry if they liked.

The third change, the native laws amendment act, was that black people had their own restricted areas in which they could not leave after certain times. Black people living outside those areas would be told to move or be imprisoned.

If black people wanted to stay in an unrestricted area for more than 72 hours, they needed a permit. Before this act Black people were allowed wherever they wanted, at whatever time suited them.

Question 3

Within South Africa, Steve Biko Was Considered a Martyr, a person who dies for their beliefs.

Steve Biko was put into prison and died because of his beliefs, that Black people should be considered equal to white people. Biko was very important man in the Black Consciousness movement, who protested on the rights for black people in South Africa, because he felt so strongly for his beliefs, because of this Biko was banned. This meant that he was not able to see more than one person at a time, was not allowed to meet other banned people, could not go to church or the cinema and could not be mentioned in the media.

Biko is considered to be the most famous martyr because he was one of the main people to put an end to apartheid. Many other martyrs are unknown because they are believed to have died in prison custody. So much is known about Biko because of his friendship with Donald Woods, a newspaper editor. Once Biko had died Woods published a book, whilst being banned, about Biko’s life as a black man and his suffering.

The book, called Biko, also contained the real reason Biko died, that he was beaten by the police while in custody. This went against the police verdict which stated that he was knocked unconscious during an argument.

Another reason given by the police for Biko’s death was that he died due to a hunger strike.

Question 2

a) The meaning of the phrase ‘The South Africa black liberation movement’ is a resistance group, which includes many organisations. It protests against apartheid and allows people of any race, background and gender into their group. They use both violent and non-violent methods in their protesting. One organisation included is the ANC, who fight for human and political rights of people of any race.

b) The ‘Black consciousness movement’ started as a student organisation in a university, however the group got so popular that they became a national movement. The group was lead by Steve Biko and focused on the rights of black people through out South Africa. They believed that Black people were treated unfairly in South Africa and that Black people were equal to white people. One of Biko’s main protests was that if Black people believed in themselves then eventually so would the white people of South Africa.

c) Mandela stated that Biko was fighting against ‘agents of a doomed regime’, by this he meant that they were fighting against the government workers. To describe a regime as being doomed means that the system was destined to fail. He believed that the system was doomed because the rest of the world did not accept apartheid and it was getting more and more opposition. E.g. Biko’s Murder

d) ‘The truth and reconciliation commission’ was an organisation, which was set up after apartheid. It meant that if you had committed a crime under apartheid you would not be imprisoned as long as you could prove that it was politically motivated i.e. a government order. You would also need to give a full confession e.g. if you had killed someone you would have to say who it was and where the body was.

Once they had proven this, you would be given protection/ security. This was given because they were seen to be trying to put an end to the past i.e. apartheid and commence equality between black and white people.

Question 4

I believe that the death of Steve Biko was the most important part in the ending of apartheid.

In 1970, when South Africa was disqualified from the Olympic, Many white people started to go against apartheid as they believed this was the reason they were not allowed to take part in the Olympic. They started to think that if they believed in equality between all races that they would be allowed back in the Olympics. Sport was very important to South Africans.

When the school children rioted in Soweto in 1976, where hundreds of children were killed, many people from around the world began to realise what was happening within South Africa and tried to do something about it, but this did not change apartheid because governments for other countries could not interfere with South Africa’s government ruling. However this did not stop them from protesting. The South African government chose to ignore the protest and stood by there rulings

I believe Nelson Mandela being released from prison in 1990 did not play a big part in ending apartheid because it did not change people’s opinions about black people within South Africa. I also think this did not help change apartheid much because Mandela believed that Biko had a good chance of winning against the government so Biko was the main person fighting for the ending of apartheid.

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