Reading Praxis Study Material 2

Use the information below to answer the following question.

Sarah looked forward to her family’s vacation at the shore. She loved building sand castles and searching for beautiful shells. Even on a day with rain, Sarah had fun staying indoors playing cards and board games with her family.

Question: A second-grade student makes several miscues when orally reading the passage above. Which of the following shows an error in decoding a word containing a vowel digraph?

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A. Pronouncing “cords” for “cards”

B. Substituting “chore” for “shore”

C. Saying “ran” for “rain”

D. Omitting the “l” in “playing”

C. Saying “ran” for “rain”

Option (C) is correct. A vowel digraph is a combination of vowels that combine to make a single vowel sound. Vowel combinations such as “oa” in “boat,” “ai” in “rain,” “ee” in “feet,” and “ea” in “sea” are examples of words containing vowel digraphs.

Later I found my old camera with one picture left I took a picture of my dog and I sent in to my uncle he loves dogs.

Question: A student wrote the sentence above in a journal. Which of the following teacher actions will most likely help the student improve his or her writing?

A. Having the student read aloud the journal entry and add appropriate punctuation where needed

B. Providing a list of rules for capitalization that the student can use for reference

C. Suggesting that the student add adjectives to his or her writing to make it more descriptive

D. Circling misspelled words and having the student use a dictionary to find the correct spellings

A. Having the student read aloud the journal entry and add appropriate punctuation where needed

Option (A) is correct. Reading aloud would help the student identify the separate sentences contained in this run-on sentence.

A student who reads with expression, appropriate phrasing, and good inflection, is described as reading with

A. generalization

B. inference

C. intensity

D. prosody

D. prosody

Option (D) is correct. Prosody is the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning.

After studying a classic novel, which of the following instructional activities should a middle school reading teacher include in a lesson to best promote student higher-order thinking?

A. Creating a backstory for a secondary character in the novel that explains his or her behavior in the book

B. Reading other texts by the same author and then identifying character similarities across texts

C. Answering comprehension questions that require textual evidence to support the answers

D. Viewing an excerpt of a video version of the novel to observe the character interaction and setting

A. Creating a backstory for a secondary character in the novel that explains his or her behavior in the book

Option (A) is correct. According to Bloom’s Taxonomy, tasks at the synthesis level are more complex and get at higher-order thinking skills more than do lower-level tasks that focus on recall of facts or details, comprehension, and comparisons. Synthesis requires putting parts together to create something new or proposing alternative solutions to a problem. In this example students are using what they have read to create a new product: a backstory for a secondary character.

Use the excerpt below to answer the question that follows.

Although the creative process of screenwriting owes a great deal to the history and development of the theater, the two art forms differ. In a play, the bulk of what is on the page is the characters’ dialogue; in a screenplay the balance shifts toward scene description, the scene description, the actions of the characters, and the visuals the audience sees. Put another way, the play depends upon the words of the characters to carry the weight of the storytelling, while a screenplay (and the film made from it) depends on the actions of the characters.

Question: Which of the following organizational patterns is used in the passage?

A. Compare and contrast

B. Chronological order

C. Problem and solution

D. Argument and counterargument

A. Compare and contrast

Option (A) is correct. Compare and Contrast is a text structure or pattern of organization where the similarities and differences of two or more things are explored. In the excerpt a screenplay and a play are compared and contrasted.

Which list of words is most appropriate in assessing student knowledge of the /t/ sound for the suffix “-ed”?

A. Wanted, sorted, branded

B. Ticked, ditched, nipped

C. Fringed, dodged, hummed

D. Attached, angled, invented

B. Ticked, ditched, nipped

Option (B) is correct. The correct pronunciation of “-ed” in these words is /t/. The other answers contain /d/ and /ed/ sounds.

During parent conferences, the parents of a student ask the teacher to explain their child’s stanine score of 8 in the area of reading comprehension. Which of the following responses most accurately describes the student’s score?

A. The student is performing at a level expected of students of the same age.

B. The results indicate limited achievement in the measured area.

C. The student is performing below grade level compared with grade-level peers.

D. The results show above-average achievement in the measured area.

D. The results show above-average achievement in the measured area.

Option (D) is correct. A stanine is a point on a 9-point scale, with 5 being average. The stanines 1, 2, and 3 are below average, and 6, 7, and 8 are above average. Stanines are useful when making comparisons among the subtests.

How many phonemes does the word “shade” have?

A. 4

B. 3

C. 5

D. 2

B. 3

Option (B) is correct. The word shade has three phonemes: /sh/-/a/-/d/. Phonemes roughly correspond to the letters, but the connection is not one-to-one. It can be confusing because early readers will want to segment the word into four parts /s/-/h/-/a/-/d/.

I reread the paper carefully for all errors.
I checked the paper for complete sentences.
I double-checked for correct spelling.
I capitalized all proper nouns.

Question: At which stage of the writing process would the above checklist be most helpful for third-grade students to use?

A. Rewriting

B. Editing

C. Revising

D. Drafting

B. Editing

Option (B) is correct. During the editing stage, students correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.

A first-grade teacher plans to instruct students in the decoding strategy of dividing phonetically regular words into onsets and rimes. Which of the following words is best for the teacher to use to most effectively model the skill?

A. Stop

B. Catch

C. Break

D. Want

A. Stop

Option (A) is correct. Teaching beginning readers about onsets and rimes helps them recognize common phonetically regular chunks within words. This knowledge can help readers decode new words with similar spelling patterns. “Stop” contains the major phonogram “-op,” knowledge of which assists students in decoding unknown words with the same phoneme-grapheme pattern.

Which of the following is/are the most important criterion/criteria when identifying a quality informational text?

A. Controlled vocabulary for ease of comprehension

B. Illustrative attractiveness and design

C. Accurate information and cohesiveness of ideas

D. Location aids, such as an index

C. Accurate information and cohesiveness of ideas

Option (C) is correct. Accuracy of the content and cohesiveness of the ideas are the most important criteria when choosing an informational text. The text may have an attractive design and index but students will not benefit from a text presenting inaccurate or biased information.

During a reading lesson, a teacher shows students five cards. Each card contains the picture of an object and the name of the object. The five objects are an igloo, an umbrella, an egg, an octopus, and an apple. The students look at each object and say the word for the object. Which of the following vowel sounds is the focus of the lesson?

A. Beginning short vowel sounds

B. Middle short vowel sounds

C. Beginning long vowel sounds

D. Middle long vowel sounds

A. Beginning short vowel sounds

Option (A) is correct. All of the five objects have a short vowel sound at the beginning (“igloo,” “umbrella,” “egg,” “octopus,” and “apple”).

Which of the following is the first step a parent can take to promote phonological development in a child?

A. Teach all the letters of the alphabet

B. Play rhyming games with one-syllable words

C. Play a game taking turns blending simple words

D. Provide computer software games on letter-sound identification

B. Play rhyming games with one-syllable words

Option (B) is correct. Phonological awareness is a broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language – parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes. Children who have phonological awareness are able to identify and make oral rhymes, can clap out the number of syllables in a word, and can recognize words with the same initial sounds like “money” and “mother.”

A fifth-grade teacher asks students to complete the following writing assignment.

Nonfiction Text Assignment.
Read the short article titled ‘Protection for Coral Reefs’. Then write a paragraph in which you do the following:
1. Identify the author’s message or purpose for writing the article.
2. Provide three pieces of evidence from the article that supports your statement in 1.

The assignment can best be used to assess students’ mastery of which of the following reading-content standards?

A. Verifying facts presented within a text through the use of multiple sources

B. Recognizing contradictory statements made by an author within a text

C. Making an inference by connecting ideas within a text

D. Comparing the viewpoints of different authors among multiple texts

C. Making an inference by connecting ideas within a text

Option (C) is correct. The assignment does address this content standard. Students are asked to demonstrate mastery of the complex task of connecting different ideas presented in the text in order to make an inference about the author’s intended message or purpose.

A fifth-grade teacher asks students to complete the following writing assignment.

Nonfiction Text Assignment.
Read the short article titled ‘Protection for Coral Reefs’. Then write a paragraph in which you do the following:
1. Identify the author’s message or purpose for writing the article.
2. Provide three pieces of evidence from the article that supports your statement in 1.

Which of the following modifications to the assignment will most appropriately accommodate an English-language learner writing at the intermediate level of English-language proficiency?

A. Identifying the author’s purpose for the student

B. Providing the student with relevant sentence stems

C. Requiring the student to list only one piece of evidence

D. Translating the article into the student’s first language

B. Providing the student with relevant sentence stems

Option (B) is correct. This modification maintains the integrity of the assignment while also providing useful support for the ELL student. Providing sentence stems removes the obstacle of generating a complete paragraph in English while also allowing the student to demonstrate mastery of the assignment.

Research supports that highly skilled readers

A. recognize whole words without examining individual letters

B. use context to anticipate words

C. read almost every word

D. go directly from print to meaning without studying each word

C. read almost every word

Option (C) is correct. Research shows that skilled readers read almost every word.

Indicate whether the following descriptions are true or false regarding explicit teaching.

Explicit teaching begins with little teacher input and moves towards extensive teacher support for student learning.

FALSE

Options 1 is false because explicit teaching begins with a large amount of teacher input and moves towards less teacher input and greater student responsibility.

Indicate whether the following descriptions are true or false regarding explicit teaching.

Students have multiple opportunities to practice a skill on their own and to receive teacher feedback as needed.

TRUE

Options 2 is true: first setting a purpose for learning, then telling students what to do, then showing them how to do it, and finally guiding their hands-on application of the new learning.

Indicate whether the following descriptions are true or false regarding explicit teaching.

Teacher modeling of the skill or strategy is one of the steps in explicit teaching.

TRUE

Options 3 is true: first setting a purpose for learning, then telling students what to do, then showing them how to do it, and finally guiding their hands-on application of the new learning.

Indicate whether the following descriptions are true or false regarding explicit teaching.

The first step in explicit teaching is to set a purpose for what the students are about to learn.

TRUE

Options 4 is true: first setting a purpose for learning, then telling students what to do, then showing them how to do it, and finally guiding their hands-on application of the new learning.

Indicate whether the following descriptions are true or false regarding explicit teaching.

Student inquiry, independent exploration, and hypothesis creation are important parts of explicit teaching.

FALSE

Option 5 is false because explicit teaching involves direct teaching of a skill or strategy, not independent exploration or student inquiry.

A third-grade class is studying polar bears in their social studies class. Their teacher prepares the following writing assignment:

How would the story of “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” be different if it took place near the Arctic Circle?

Question: The assignment helps to develop which of the following?

A. Making connections between previous experiences and reading selections

B. Comparing and contrasting settings, characters, and events

C. Drawing conclusions about how setting affects a story

D. Understanding basic plots of fairy tales, myths, folktales, legends, and fables

C. Drawing conclusions about how setting affects a story

Option (C) is correct. By changing the setting of the story, the students would draw conclusions about how details in the setting would be different.

Words that cannot be sounded out according to regular pronunciation rules are called irregular words. Which list below contains irregular words?

A. Man, came, well, in

B. We, him, get, so

C. Do, said, was, of

D. How, had, make, not

C. Do, said, was, of

Option (C) is the best answer. (C) contains irregular words with letters that do not represent their most common sounds. “Do,” “said,” “was,” and “of” all have irregular pronunciations.

When teaching students how to use structural analysis to learn new words, which of the following words would best lend itself to this skill?

A. Help

B. Abnormal

C. Maintain

D. Detail

B. Abnormal

Option (B) is correct. Structural analysis is the use of prefixes, suffixes, and root words to understand the meaning of an unknown word. The word “abnormal,” being the only word that has a prefix and a root word, would be the best word to use when teaching structural analysis.

To encourage students to write more descriptive essays, a fourth-grade teacher asks the students to write an essay about a memorable moment. Which of the following strategies can the teacher incorporate to support the students in that area?

A. Asking the students to make a list of sensory images

B. Encouraging the students to use a thesaurus to find synonyms for some of their word choices

C. Explaining how the students can incorporate transition words

D. Suggesting that the students combine sentences

A. Asking the students to make a list of sensory images

Option (A) is correct. Making a list of sensory images describing the event would help the students to add details about the topic.

Indicate whether each statement below describes criterion-referenced or norm-referenced tests.

Most of these tests have a cut score, which determines success or failure based on an established percentage of correct answers

Criterion-referenced

Criterion-referenced assessment is by definition an assessment that tells us how well a student performs against an objective or standard, as opposed to against another student as in norm-referenced assessment. The criterion-referenced score tells us if a particular student meets the objective successfully based on an established cut score.

Indicate whether each statement below describes criterion-referenced or norm-referenced tests.

This test is most appropriate to use when an educator wants to assess the specific concepts or skills a student has learned through classroom instruction.

Criterion-referenced

Criterion-referenced assessment is by definition an assessment that tells us how well a student performs against an objective or standard, as opposed to against another student as in norm-referenced assessment. The criterion-referenced score tells us if a particular student meets the objective successfully based on an established cut score.

Indicate whether each statement below describes criterion-referenced or norm-referenced tests.

This test uses percentile rank and grade-equivalent scores.

Norm-referenced

Criterion-referenced assessment is by definition an assessment that tells us how well a student performs against an objective or standard, as opposed to against another student as in norm-referenced assessment. The criterion-referenced score tells us if a particular student meets the objective successfully based on an established cut score.

Indicate whether each statement below describes criterion-referenced or norm-referenced tests.

This test is useful when educators want to make comparisons across large numbers of students or make decisions on student placement (in K-12 schools or college) and grade advancement.

Norm-referenced

Criterion-referenced assessment is by definition an assessment that tells us how well a student performs against an objective or standard, as opposed to against another student as in norm-referenced assessment. The criterion-referenced score tells us if a particular student meets the objective successfully based on an established cut score.

A fourth-grade class read Marvin and the Mean Words, by Suzy Kline. In the story, Marvin, a boy who likes to tease others in his class, thinks he overhears his teacher saying that she hates him. Though it turns out to be a big misunderstanding, Marvin is flooded with feelings of rage and insecurity. After reading the story, a student wrote the following in a response journal.Marvin is getting better at respecting other people because he learned that mean words can hurt.The student’s writing best exemplifies which of the following categories of response?

A. Character identification

B. Character assessment

C. Visualizing setting

D. Making predictions

B. Character assessment

Option (B) is correct. Character assessment is judging a character’s action within the framework of their moral standard and value system.

A sixth-grade student ranked at the 23rd percentile on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. The correct interpretation of this score is that the student scored as well as or better than

A. 77% of the norming population

B. 23% of the norming population

C. 77% of the students in the class

D. 23% of the students in the class

B. 23% of the norming population

Option (B) is correct. The student scored as well as or better than 23% of the norming population. Percentile indicates what percent of the subjects scored as well as or below this child.

Which of the following statements best describes test reliability in both formal and informal assessments?

A. The test measures what it is supposed to measure.

B. A student’s achievement is consistently measured in comparison to that of others of the same age.

C. Test results measure skills closely related to the school-based curriculum.

D. A student’s performance would be generally consistent if the same test was administered a number of times.

D. A student’s performance would be generally consistent if the same test was administered a number of times.

Option (D) is correct. To be useful, formal and informal assessments should be reliable; i.e., yielding consistent results. If the same test is given to the same students a number of times, the results would be approximately the same.

Which of the following is an effective instructional strategy for helping kindergarten students develop an understanding of concepts about print?

A. Exposing students to a variety of rhyming texts

B. Finger tapping to count phonemes in words

C. Facilitating guided practice of visualization techniques

D. Modeling how to track during shared reading

D. Modeling how to track during shared reading

The correct answer is D. Children are more likely to attend to print when engaged in shared reading with an adult who uses print-referencing behavior. The other options are not print awareness instructional strategies.

A teacher wants to describe to the class a rule associated with adding a silent “e” to the end of a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word. The best approach is to tell the students that when a silent “e” appears at the end of a CVC word, it cannot be heard but it will

A. make the other vowel have a long sound

B. make the other vowel and consonants have a blended sound

C. make the other vowel have a short sound

D. change the other vowel into a long “e” sound

A. make the other vowel have a long sound

Option (A) is correct. Because when “e” is added to a word with a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) combination, the initial vowel has a long sound. For example, “can” is a CVC word with a short a sound. When “e” is added to the end, the word becomes “cane” and the “a” has a long sound.

Which of the following words contains the soft sound of “g”?

A. Wiggle

B. Thought

C. Urgent

D. Guilt

C. Urgent

Option (C) is correct. The “g” in “urgent” is pronounced as /j/ which is the soft sound of the letter. The word follows the phonic rule that when “g” is followed by “e”, “l,” or “y,” it usually makes the soft sound of the grapheme.

A first-grade student shows evidence of phonological awareness but has difficulty segmenting words into phonemes. Which of the questions below is likely to be the most challenging for the student to answer?

A. Listen to these word parts: /p/ /i/ /ck/. What is the word?

B. Which of these two words rhyme: “fun,” “sun,” or “tan”?

C. Listen to this word: “sad.” How many sounds do you hear?

D. Which of these two words have the same medial sound: “fit,” “bin,” “can”?

C. Listen to this word: “sad.” How many sounds do you hear?

Option (C) is correct. When segmenting words into sounds, the student listens for and identifies phonemes in the word.

During a writing conference, a sixth-grade teacher notices that a student needs help with organization of ideas. Which of the following questions is most likely to promote growth in this area?

A. Does the conclusion summarize all your ideas?

B. Do the examples support the ideas in each paragraph?

C. Where can more details be added?

D. Does the topic sentence grab the attention of the reader?

B. Do the examples support the ideas in each paragraph?

Option (B) is correct. Prompting thought about ideas supported by examples or details is likely to help the student improve organization of ideas.

A middle school teacher wants students to support their ideas with evidence from the text they are reading. Which of the following strategies will best help the teacher achieve this goal?

A. Responding to comprehension questions orally

B. Recording student questions on sticky notes

C. Illustrating memorable scenes on art paper

D. Writing a response in a double-entry journal

D. Writing a response in a double-entry journal

Option (D) is correct. The double-entry journal strategy enables students to record their responses to text as they read. Students write down phrases or sentences from their assigned reading and then write their own reaction to that passage. The purpose of this strategy is to give students the opportunity to express their thoughts and become actively involved with the material they read.

Which of the following concepts is best supported by current research on emergent literacy?

A. Children begin their literacy learning when they enter school.

B. Reading and writing development have distinct beginning and ending points.

C. Reading and writing develop in children concurrently and in interrelated ways.

D. Children begin their literacy learning after having mastered basic letter-sound skills.

C. Reading and writing develop in children concurrently and in interrelated ways.

Option (C) is correct. Reading and writing are complementary processes that can be used to strengthen each other in reciprocal fashion. Practice in writing helps children build their reading skills. This is especially true for younger children who are working to develop phonemic awareness and phonics skills. Phonemic awareness (the understanding that words are developed from sound “chunks”) develops as children read and write new words. Similarly, phonics skills or the ability to link sounds together to construct words are reinforced when children read and write the same words.

Which of the following is an example of internal conflict?

A. “All the way home, Emilio felt angry with himself. Why couldn’t he have spoken up at the meeting? Why was he always so shy?”

B. “Juanita and Marco disagreed about where they should take the money they had found.”

C. “In the high winds, the crew was barely able to keep the sails from dipping sideways. Each time the wind accelerated, the crew almost lost the boat.”

D. “Celine struggled to walk through the cold, blowing wind.”

A. “All the way home, Emilio felt angry with himself. Why couldn’t he have spoken up at the meeting? Why was he always so shy?”

Option (A) is correct. An internal conflict is a struggle which takes place in the protagonist’s mind and through which the character reaches a new understanding or dynamic change.

During a writing lesson, Ms. Richards asks her students to identify a writing audience, a list of writing topics, and a purpose. Ms. Richards’ class is most likely working on which of the following stages of writing?

A. Publishing

B. Editing

C. Drafting

D. Prewriting

D. Prewriting

Option (D) is correct. All of the tasks being done by Ms. Richards’ students occur before they begin writing and, therefore, take place during the prewriting stage of the writing process.

Bandwagon
Testimonial
Rewards
Glittering generality

Question:
The above mentioned devices should most likely be taught when studying which of the following genres?

A. Narrative

B. Biographical

C. Persuasive

D. Poetry

C. Persuasive

Option (C) is correct. The four devices are used to persuade readers. Narrative, biographical, and poetry do not utilize the devices.

Which of the following is most likely to promote an adolescent’s motivation to read through curriculum design?

A. Aligning content and skills to state standards

B. Offering students a choice of supplemental reading materials

C. Offering cross-age and peer-tutoring programs

D. Monitoring student growth through frequent formative assessments

B. Offering students a choice of supplemental reading materials

Option (B) is correct. Empowering students to make decisions about topics and selections of materials fosters greater student ownership and responsibility for engagement, which positively impacts motivation.

Which of the following strategies is appropriate for teaching students to automatically recognize high-frequency words?

A. Encouraging students to sound out a word when it is encountered

B. Asking students to make a picture dictionary using those words

C. Inviting students to create new words by adding or deleting sounds

D. Presenting a word visually and asking students to say it

D. Presenting a word visually and asking students to say it

Option (D) is correct. This is the very first strategy a teacher utilizes when introducing high-frequency words to students.

A teacher wants to expose students to a wide range of genres. One week the teacher has students select a book in which a moral is taught and animals speak. The genre of literature students are being asked to check out can best be described as

A. fable

B. myth

C. folktale

D. legend

A. fable

Option (A) is correct. Fables present a useful truth or lesson. Often, the characters are animals that speak as if they were human.

Which of the following teacher interventions is most effective when readers lack the knowledge to read a text on an unfamiliar topic?

A. Teaching new vocabulary as a pre-reading step

B. Providing relevant background information

C. Questioning students to determine prior knowledge

D. Reading the text aloud before asking students to read silently

B. Providing relevant background information

Option (B) is correct. Giving students background information on an unfamiliar topic provides a conceptual framework from which students can access the content.

Which of the following is a research-based method for improving a student’s reading fluency?

A. Providing students many opportunities to reread the same passage

B. Teaching students to recognize story structure

C. Encouraging students to use context clues to determine word meaning

D. Providing direct instruction on self-questioning

A. Providing students many opportunities to reread the same passage

Option (A) is correct. Research indicates that repeated readings improves fluency. The repetition helps students improve recognition and recall of sight words.

The best way to develop students’ metacognitive skills is for teachers to do which of the following?

A. Give students a few global prereading questions to guide their reading.

B. Advocate and model the use of self-questioning strategies during reading.

C. Have students memorize the new vocabulary words needed to comprehend the reading selection.

D. Provide opportunities for students to write comprehension questions for one another.

B. Advocate and model the use of self-questioning strategies during reading.

Option (B) is correct. In order to create strategic readers, it is important to show students how to use the strategy and be explicit about why the strategy is helpful to them. Metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that a goal has been reached (e.g., quizzing oneself to evaluate one’s understanding of a text)

A teacher has students read a passage and then asks the students to think about the following questions.

Why does the writer use these words to describe the situation?
What types of adjectives and adverbs does the author use for description?
What are the denotations and connotations of the words the author uses?

By asking these questions, the teacher is primarily helping students understand which of the following?

A. Setting

B. Characterization

C. Tone

D. Theme

C. Tone

Option (C) is correct because the questions will help the students focus on the author’s tone.

Which of the following is a critical thinking skill essential for students to develop when learning web research skills?

A. Citing sources accurately and appropriately

B. Cross-checking facts to ensure reliability of information

C. Learning how to navigate to find relevant content

D. Attributing the words and ideas of others on reports and projects

B. Cross-checking facts to ensure reliability of information

Option (B) is correct. Students need to learn to think critically by cross-checking facts even from reliable sources. Reading and evaluating the credibility of sources develops critical thinking skills to determine if there is inaccuracy or bias in the way the information is presented.

While reading an informational passage, a student comes to the word “lead” and engages in the following think aloud.

I recognize this word and know that it can be pronounced in different ways depending on how it is used. “Lead” is a chemical that is sometimes used to make things like pipes. “Lead” can also be a verb that means to guide. I need to read to the end of the sentence and think about which pronunciation and definition makes sense in this passage.

Question: Which of the following best describes the process the student used to gain understanding of the word?

A. Orthographic

B. Phonological

C. Meaning

D. Context

D. Context

Option (D) is correct. When readers decode, they attend to four processes: orthographic, phonological, meaning, and context. The context process involves the reader constructing a continuing understanding of text. The student in this scenario is using context to determine the correct meaning of the word “lead.”

A teacher is designing an instructional plan for a small group of students who are having difficulty decoding unfamiliar multisyllabic words. The most appropriate approach to address the students’ need is to teach them to

A. sound out multisyllabic words phoneme by phoneme

B. clap out the number of syllables in multisyllabic words

C. memorize grade appropriate word lists that contain multisyllabic words

D. look for affixes and morphemes in multisyllabic words

D. look for affixes and morphemes in multisyllabic words

Option (D) is correct. Research suggests that teaching students to recognize affixes and morphemes is an effective way to aid students in decoding multisyllabic words.

A teacher is concerned that many intermediate-level students use nonstandard English patterns in their speech and writing. A colleague who has kept abreast of recent trends is most likely to advise the teacher to

A. provide extensive practice using written exercises that require students to make choices between standard and nonstandard word forms

B. insist that the students be more consistent in using standard forms in oral communications at school

C. provide experiences from which the students can conclude that different usage styles are appropriate in different situations

D. encourage students to be more consistent in using standard forms in oral communications outside of school

C. provide experiences from which the students can conclude that different usage styles are appropriate in different situations

Option (C) is correct. Providing examples of standard English and allowing students to explicitly learn the differences between their home language and academic language without judgment allows students to transition more easily.

Which of the following best describes an appropriate purpose for collecting data from an annual statewide reading assessment?

Select all that apply.

A. Identifying overall strengths and weaknesses in reading instruction

B. Monitoring changes in students’ reading skills over a school year

C. Identifying student populations in need of extra reading support

D. Setting school-wide goals for student performance in reading

E. Categorizing strengths and weaknesses of specific curriculum used within a district

A. Identifying overall strengths and weaknesses in reading instruction

C. Identifying student populations in need of extra reading support

D. Setting school-wide goals for student performance in reading

Options (A), (C), and (D) are correct. Annual statewide assessments results can be used for this purpose. Standardized annual assessments can provide a variety of data about school-wide performance, including major school-wide areas of strength and weakness. Annual statewide assessment results can be used for this purpose. Standardized annual assessments can provide information on individual student performance on specific reading objectives, which can be used to identify students who may benefit from extra support. Annual statewide assessment results can be used for this purpose. Standardized annual assessments can provide a variety of data about school-wide performance, including major school-wide areas of strength and weakness. Analysis of this data can support the development of school-wide performance goals.

A teacher is searching for an assessment tool that will provide specific information to guide instruction in order to improve each students’ writing abilities. Which of the following is most likely to assist the teacher in this goal?

A. A holistic scoring rubric

B. An analytic scoring rubric

C. A standardized test

D. An attitude survey

B. An analytic scoring rubric

Option (B) is correct. An analytic scoring rubric articulates levels of performance so the teacher can assess student performance and suggest specific educational solutions. Students receive specific feedback on their performance with respect to each of the individual scoring criteria, which does not occur with a holistic rubric.

A teacher is planning instruction for two students. One student makes oral reading errors due to over-reliance on contextual strategies. The other student makes errors based on inadequate graphophonic analysis. Based on the information given, which of the following statements is most likely true?

A. The two students require very different types of intervention to address each student’s individual weakness

B. Both students require explicit decoding instruction and frequent opportunities for practice

C. Despite the errors, the student who makes oral reading errors due to over-reliance on contextual strategies will still be able to accurately comprehend the text.

D. The student who relies on contextual strategies will not have as many decoding errors as the student with inadequate graphophonic skills.

B. Both students require explicit decoding instruction and frequent opportunities for practice

Option (B) is correct. One implication of the current understanding of the reading process is that the qualitative analysis of reading errors is largely irrelevant to instructional planning. Decoding errors of whatever type are best addressed at the level of decoding instruction. Both students require decoding instruction and practice, sufficient to enable effortless reading at the appropriate level of text difficulty.

A primary advantage of using a student portfolio as an alternative to traditional tests and performance measures is that this type of assessment

A. contains only exemplary work

B. does not require a grade to be assigned

C. measures student achievement over time

D. contains only work selected by the student

C. measures student achievement over time

Option (C) is correct. The primary advantage of a developmental portfolio is the measurement of student achievement over time.

A teacher administers several word inventories and one particular student regularly misses the following words.

Remark
Swerving
Chord
Squirt
Dessert
Bigger

Question: According to the data, on which of the following does the teacher most likely need to focus?

A. R-controlled vowels

B. Consonant digraphs

C. Double consonants

D. Suffixes

A. R-controlled vowels

Option (A) is correct. When a vowel is followed by an r, it makes a special sound. These are called r-controlled vowels, or r-colored vowels. This is a trait common in all of the words; therefore (A) is the correct answer.

During instruction, a teacher frequently asks questions to gauge students’ level of understanding of the content and concepts being taught. Which of the following instructional tools is the teacher using?

A. A teachable moment

B. Formative assessment

C. Summative assessment

D. Closure

B. Formative assessment

Option (B) is correct. Formative assessment takes place during instruction and provides assessment-based feedback to teachers and students. The function is to help teachers and students make adjustments that will improve students’ achievement of intended curricular aims.

Which of the following reading tasks is most likely to be enhanced by scanning an expository text?

A. Evaluating the scope and validity of the information

B. Getting a general overview of the structure of the piece

C. Analyzing the author’s perspective on the topic

D. Locating a specific piece of information quickly

D. Locating a specific piece of information quickly

Option (D) is correct. Scanning refers to rapidly covering a large amount of text for the purpose of locating a specific fact (e.g., name, date, statistic, etc.) or piece of information.

Mr. James, a kindergarten teacher, reads a story aloud to his students. As he reads, he asks the students to identify which sound is the same in the words “pig,” “pumpkin,” and “pail,” three words mentioned throughout the story. Which phonemic-awareness skill is he practicing with the students?

A. Phoneme segmentation

B. Phoneme blending

C. Phoneme identity

D. Phoneme categorization

C. Phoneme identity

Option (C) is correct. Phoneme identity refers to the ability to recognize the same sound in different words.

A student has completed the following word sort:

Flaps Table
Cat Fail
Mask Aim
Slab Mats

Question: Which of the following did the student sort incorrectly?

A. Flaps

B. Aim

C. Cat

D. Mats

D. Mats

Option (D) is correct. This is correct because “mats” should be in the short vowel column as it does not say the name of the letter when uttering it. Since it is in the long vowel column this response would be correct.

Which of the following informal diagnostic procedures requires students to provide appropriate words to complete the sentences in a reading passage in which words have been deleted in a systematic fashion?

A. Running record

B. Cloze technique

C. Informal reading inventory

D. Oral reading interview

B. Cloze technique

Option (B) is correct. A cloze technique is an informal diagnostic procedure that requires students to provide appropriate words to complete sentences in a systematic fashion from a passage they have just read.

A high school literature teacher has students engage in a close reading of a literary passage. The teacher states:

“As students read, I walk around the classroom and observe their annotations. I encourage students to mark sections of text that they don’t understand and I look for patterns in their responses.”

Question: Based on the statement, the teacher’s next best step is most likely to

A. evaluate strengths and weaknesses in students’ passage-based vocabulary knowledge

B. organize students in mixed-ability pairs to orally reread the piece

C. provide students with an alternate version of the piece at a lower readability level

D. use the recorded comments as a formative assessment to drive further instruction

D. use the recorded comments as a formative assessment to drive further instruction

Option (D) is correct. The best next step the teacher should take is to use the data he/she collects while moving around the classroom as a formative assessment. Based on the fact that some students were confused by the same section of the text, the teacher needs to plan to model reading that section through an instructional technique such as a think aloud for example. The teacher intervention, classroom discussion, and subsequent rereadings for different purposes following the close reading will assist students experiencing difficulty to better comprehend the text.

Ms. Rulo prepared the following notes on Laura, a sixth-grade student: Laura is very attentive in class. However, whenever a passage is read aloud, Laura cannot answer literal comprehension questions correctly.

Question:
According to the information above, in which of the following does Laura first need direct instruction and guided practice?

A. Making predictions

B. Drawing conclusions

C. Organizing information

D. Recalling facts

D. Recalling facts

Option (D) is correct. The inability to answer literal comprehension questions is most likely caused by the student having difficulty recalling information she has heard. She may have an auditory processing problem.

First-grader Matthew knows initial and final consonants and also uses but confuses some medial short vowels. He does not use blends and digraphs often, if at all. Matthew is ready to study blends and digraphs with pictures and mixed-vowel word families. Which of the following stages of spelling development describes Matthew?

A. Emergent

B. Letter-name

C. Syllable and affix

D. Derivational relation

B. Letter-name

Option (B) is correct. The student is a letter-name speller because he has letter-sound knowledge and is ready to move on to more complex, single-syllable words.

Which of the following statements is true of the main idea of a text?

A. The main idea is the subject matter of the text.

B. The main idea is provided in the topic sentence.

C. The main idea summarizes the central thought of the text.

D. The main idea is repeated in the first sentence in each paragraph.

C. The main idea summarizes the central thought of the text.

The correct answer is (C). The main idea has to capture the entire reading (beginning, middle, and end).

Fill in each blank with a word from the list that best serves as an example of the syllabication rule.

tennis tackle music idle

• When a syllable ends in a vowel, the vowel is long, as in .

• When a syllable ends in a consonant, the vowel is short, as in

• Divide a word between two like consonants, as in .

• When a consonant lies between two vowels, divide the word after the first vowel, as in .

idle
tackle
tennis
music

D) When a syllable ends in a vowel, the vowel is long, as in idle. B) When a syllable ends in a consonant, the vowel is short, as in tackle. A) Divide a word between two like consonants, as in tennis. C) When a consonant lies between two vowels, divide the word after the first vowel, as in music.

My vacation was excieting. We did many interesting things. We went to the beach. We played in the sand and collected delicate shells. It was really hot so we went in the ocean. We played games in the water. We had an amazing time.

A student wrote the paragraph above about summer vacation. Which of the following areas should the teacher most focus on during a writing conference with the student?

A. Word choice

B. Sentence variety

C. Spelling

D. Fragments and run-on sentences

B. Sentence variety

(B) is the best answer. The writer begins most of his or her sentences with “We.” He or she would benefit from assistance with combining sentences or finding different ways to begin his or her sentences for variety.

Ms. Mattis wants to informally assess her student’s directionality skills to identify which students need additional practice. Which of the following questions can she ask to informally assess this skill?

A. How did you know what that word was?
B. Where do you start reading?
C. Did you miss any words as you read?
D. Did that sound right?

B. Where do you start reading?

Option (B) is correct. Asking this question is ideal for identifying whether a student understands that English text is read from left to right.

When the letter combination [or digraph] “a” and “i” appears in a syllable, it usually represents the sound of

A. the “i” in kite

B. the “a” in car

C. the “a” in case

D. the “a” in cat

C. the “a” in case

Option (C) is correct. The “a” in “case” represents the long “a” sound. When the letter combination [or digraph] “ai” appears together in a syllable, it usually represents the long “a” sound.

Which of the following scenarios best demonstrates behavior of an emergent reader?

A. A student opens a familiar book and recalls enough of the language and plot to pretend to read it without actually identifying any of the words.

B. A student has a set of 26 cards with letters of the alphabet on them and stacks them to make a high structure.

C. A student takes turns with a partner to read a chapter in a nonfiction book and then records new information.

D. A student reads independently from a self-selected fiction book for fifteen minutes.

A. A student opens a familiar book and recalls enough of the language and plot to pretend to read it without actually identifying any of the words.

Option (A) is correct. Emergent is the first stage of early literacy development and is followed by the early, early fluent, and fluent stages. Emergent readers understand that written language conveys messages. Children may pretend to read by turning the pages of a book and invent a story by using pictures and their memory of the story.

Mr. Stewart, a third-grade teacher, plans to assess a student’s comprehension of a fictional story. He chooses an informal tool that has the following benefits.

In addition to gathering data about what the student has understood, the assessment shows what the reader has added or inferred from the story.

The assessment gives information about how the reader constructs the story and organizes a response.

Information about the quality of a student’s language and the thought processes in constructing a response can be collected.
Question: Which of the following is most likely the assessment measure Mr. Stewart selects?

A. Retelling

B. Running record

C. Open-ended prompts

D. Anecdotal records

A. Retelling

Option (A) is correct. A retelling is the process of summarizing or describing a story and is used to assess comprehension. To administer a retelling, a student is asked to read a story and then recall it, at least initially, without prompting. A student may be asked to elaborate if he or she does not completely address elements of the story, but the open-ended nature of a retelling allows a teacher to measure comprehension in a way that has the benefits delineated in the list in this scenario.

While observing a student reading, the teacher notices that the student does not match letters with their correct sounds. The student is most likely having problems with

A. comprehension

B. syntax

C. graphophonic cues

D. reading fluency

C. graphophonic cues

Option (C) is correct. The student seems to be having trouble with letter-sound correspondence. (“Graph,” which means print, and “phonic,” which means sound, refer to letter-sound correspondence.)

Teacher: What is the first sound in van?

Student: The first sound in van is /v/.

The teacher is assessing the student’s ability to do which of the following phonemic awareness tasks?

A. Phoneme isolation

B. Phoneme categorization

C. Phoneme blending

D. Phoneme segmentation

A. Phoneme isolation

Option (A) is correct. The student is isolating the initial sound /v/ from the rest of the word. Phoneme isolation requires the recognition of individual sounds within a word, which is what the student is doing in identifying the first sound in “van.”

Before reading a selection about pond life from a science textbook, a teacher asks students to write all that they know about the topic. Then the teacher asks several students to share their thoughts with the class. The teacher briefly points out similarities and differences in the students’ concepts.

Question: The primary purpose of the activity is to help the students

A. establish stronger peer relationships by encouraging the use of a common vocabulary to describe experiences

B. develop their speaking and listening skills in a particular content area

C. read the text assignment smoothly and quickly when they come to it

D. expand their schemata in order to construct meaning and retain information from the reading

D. expand their schemata in order to construct meaning and retain information from the reading

Option (D) is correct. The primary purpose of the activity is to activate prior knowledge and build on background knowledge in student discussions.

Which of the following is a characteristic of the language experience approach (LEA) ?

A. Use of a grade-leveled series of texts that are read aloud

B. Emphasis on sequenced skills instruction and practice

C. Focus on language as the bridge between the oral and written language

D. Preteaching by using oral language activities and vocabulary words as a basis for predicting

C. Focus on language as the bridge between the oral and written language

Option (C) is correct. The language experience approach focuses on children’s ability to produce language as a bridge between spoken and written language.

Over time, a teacher builds a collection of students’ personal narratives at various performance levels. During a writing workshop, the teacher shows students a genre-specific assessment rubric and displays an anonymous writing piece on the smartboard. Then, using the rubric, students work in small groups to evaluate the piece and share their assessments with the class.

Question: Which of the following is the most likely goal of the instructional activity?

A. To provide examples of style elements in effective written expression

B. To illustrate for students bow to score a writing piece holistically

C. To give students a clearer understanding of meeting expected standards

D. To provide an opportunity to compare characteristics of various genres

C. To give students a clearer understanding of meeting expected standards

Option (C) is correct. Allowing students to self- or peer-assess a writing piece gives them an opportunity to learn what writing meets a standard, as defined in a genre-specific rubric, and what writing does not. Students are better able to understand the elements of effective writing after completing these types of activities. This exercise helps student in writing their own pieces as the teacher in the scenario continues with direct instruction on personal narratives during the writing workshop.

A reading specialist conducts a workshop for teachers on use of the directed reading-thinking activity (DRTA) method of instruction. In the model, teachers ask students to first make predictions based on the title and cover of a book. At various points in the story, students stop reading and check the accuracy of their predictions. Predictions are then changed or clarified, and new predictions may be made based on new information the students learned while reading. The DRTA method of instruction is most likely to promote which of the following?

A. Applying metacognitive skills to increase comprehension

B. Using text structures to summarize

C. Reinforcing use of word-recognition skills in context

D. Increasing motivation to read independently

A. Applying metacognitive skills to increase comprehension

The best answer is (A). Good readers continually make, revise, or confirm predictions as they read. In this way, they are forming connections between prior knowledge and new information in the text. In making predictions, proficient readers are aware of their own thought processes. The reader is developing metacognition — the ability to think about his or her own thinking.

The following is a reader’s response prompt that a fourth-grade teacher gives to students.

Describe a time when you felt the same way as a character in the story.

Question: The prompt best facilitates students’ ability to

A. identify implied themes within a text

B. examine a text from multiple viewpoints

C. make deeper connections to a text

D. support arguments with textual evidence

C. make deeper connections to a text

Option (C) is correct. The prompt encourages students to make text-to-self connections by relating a character’s experience to an experience in their own life, thereby making a deeper connection to the text.

Which of the following is the primary purpose of a norm-referenced test?

A. Interpreting a student’s performance using set criteria

B. Measuring how well a student has learned content-specific knowledge and skills

C. Indicating where a student performs in comparison to a group of similar students

D. Evaluating a student’s performance compared to a standard

C. Indicating where a student performs in comparison to a group of similar students

Option (C) is correct. Norm-referenced tests allow a student’s skills to be compared with the skills of other students in a similar age group. These tests are developed by administering a set of test items to a group of students; the performance of those in the norming group is used as a basis for comparison.

Ms. Osborn teaches a variety of reading strategies to help her students become strategic readers. The strategies include predicting, previewing, monitoring comprehension while reading, generating questions, and summarizing. Which of the following most likely explains Ms. Osborn’s purpose in teaching the strategies?

A. Research has shown that reading comprehension improves when teachers provide explicit instruction.

B. The school district mandates that students receive instruction in reading-comprehension strategies.

C. Research has shown that only these strategies are effective.

D. The school literacy coach has given workshops in the use of the strategies.

A. Research has shown that reading comprehension improves when teachers provide explicit instruction.

Option (A) is correct. According to research cited in Reutzel and Cooter’s Strategies for Reading Assessment and Instruction: Helping Every Child Succeed, evidence supports that providing explicit instruction in comprehension strategies improves student literacy development.

Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the process of language acquisition in young children?

A. Young children understand full sentences at a relatively late stage in language development.

B. Young children exhibit random, highly variable errors in sentence construction.

C. Young children infer the underlying rules of language to which they are exposed.

D. Young children require planned early instructional intervention to master the language’s grammar.

C. Young children infer the underlying rules of language to which they are exposed.

Option (C) is correct. According to psycholinguists and others who specialize in human growth and development, young children infer the underlying rules of language to which they are exposed and begin to acquire the ability to communicate through testing what they have learned (hypothesis testing).

A student and a teacher are reading aloud in unison. The teacher, sitting slightly behind the student, leads the oral reading. The teacher speaks into the student’s ear and moves a finger under the words as they are read. This fluency-building strategy is known as which of the following methods?

A. Neurological impress

B. Reading while listening

C. Paired reading

D. Repeated reading

A. Neurological impress

Option (A) is correct. The scenario describes the neurological impress method that is intended to be a multisensory approach to building a student’s reading-fluency skills. The method provides a model (the teacher reading) of accurate and fluent reading.

First-grade students Porter and Henry are working together in a learning center where they are listening to a series of words recorded by the teacher. Each student taps out the speech sounds they hear in the words and then checks with the other student to see if he agrees. The primary benefit of the activity for the students is that it

A. reinforces phonemic awareness

B. provides practice in working cooperatively

C. helps develop auditory discrimination

D. helps develop rhyming skills

A. reinforces phonemic awareness

Option (A) is correct. Phonemic awareness refers to a student’s basic knowledge that spoken language is composed of a series of individual speech sounds known as phonemes. Having a strong sense of phonemic awareness is a good predictor of whether a student will experience success in learning to read.

A teacher asks students to search the Internet to locate information on a self-selected research question. Which of the following strategies is most effective for helping students locate the material needed to answer the questions?

A. Finding the authorship and copyright information for various websites

B. Comparing and contrasting different search engines

C. Identifying key words to use in the search

D. Skimming the information on various websites

C. Identifying key words to use in the search

Option (C) is correct. Key words in a question can be used as search terms in a search engine. Focusing the search for information in this way gives students direction and a strategy to use in answering specific questions.

After reading a story, a fourth-grade teacher asks the students to compare two characters. Which of the following graphic organizers is best for students to use for the activity?

A. Venn diagram

B. Cluster diagram

C. Sequence chart

D. Flowchart

A. Venn diagram

Option (A) is correct. The Venn diagram is a graphic organizer comprised of overlapping circles that show those features that are either common or unique to two or more elements in a text. Typically, Venn diagrams are used as visual representations to enhance a student’s ability to understand and organize information presented in written material.

Which of the following activities describes structural analysis?

A. Identifying the beginning, middle, and ending sounds in a word

B. Blending individual sounds to decode a word

C. Counting the number of syllables in a spoken word

D. Identifying the word-meaning parts of the word

D. Identifying the word-meaning parts of the word

The best answer is (D). Structural analysis refers to identifying word-meaning elements, such as “dis” and “like” in “dislike,” to help in understanding a word’s meaning. Structural analysis generally involves recognizing affixes, roots, contractions, compounds, and inflected forms of words.

Students in a sixth-grade class are preparing to give an oral report on a famous author they have researched. Which of the following strategies would be most effective for students to do before speaking to an audience?

A. Providing a copy of the report to all students in the class

B. Writing key words on note cards to refer to during the presentation

C. Memorizing the report before the presentation

D. Creating a media-based presentation from which to read the report

B. Writing key words on note cards to refer to during the presentation

Option (B) is correct. When students have completed their research projects and are asked to develop an oral report, they should consider how to present information that will be both interesting and well organized. Students should write the key words or phrases from the information they want to present on note cards to help them recall the material.

In a fifth-grade reading class, the teacher asks students to write a list of words associated with the American Revolution. Next the teacher draws three columns on the board and labels them “British,” “American,” and “Both.” Students are asked to come to the board and write their words in the most appropriate column. The class discusses why each word belongs in the particular column. This vocabulary-development activity is known as which of the following?

A. Semantic feature analysis

B. List-group-label

C. Using context clues

D. OPIN

B. List-group-label

Option (B) is correct. List-group-label is a vocabulary-building activity that encourages students to activate prior knowledge, share what they know about content-specific concepts, and make connections between them.

A first-grade class sorts word cards into categories provided by the teacher. Below is a result of the sort.

A first-grade class sorts word cards into categories provided by the teacher. Below is a result of the sort.

Which of the following skills does the chart shown best reinforce?

A. Spelling of rhyming words

B. Knowledge of vowel patterns

C. Understanding of beginning consonant sounds

D. Knowledge of consonant digraphs

B. Knowledge of vowel patterns

Option (B) is correct. The categories are common vowel patterns, and sorting words into the categories reinforces students’ familiarity with these patterns in both their reading and writing.

A second-grade teacher uses an assessment tool for coding, scoring, and analyzing a student’s oral reading behavior. Which of the following best describes the technique?

A. Shared reading

B. Reader’s conference

C. Process interview

D. Running record

D. Running record

Option (D) is correct. The scenario describes a running record.

Which of the following is the best reason for using flexible grouping in the reading classroom?

A. Flexible grouping allows teachers to tailor instruction to address students’ changing needs.

B. Flexible grouping ensures opportunities for students to have discussions around a common text with their peers.

C. Flexible grouping allows students to get comfortable working with the same group of peers throughout the school year.

D. Flexible grouping provides time for students to progress through a set of materials.

A. Flexible grouping allows teachers to tailor instruction to address students’ changing needs.

Option (A) is correct. When teachers use flexible grouping they are considering the always-changing strengths and weaknesses of students and they can group the students temporarily to best meet instructional needs. The other options do not address the main purpose of using flexible grouping.

To promote family involvement in literacy activities, teachers can encourage parents to

A. buy comics and story books

B. get their child a library card

C. discuss stories and experiences at home

D. volunteer in the school’s media center

C. discuss stories and experiences at home

Option (C) is correct. This practice is recommended based on research by Jim Trelease and the National Institute of Education’s Commission on Reading. Discussing stories and experiences at home promotes family involvement and the increase of oral language and vocabulary development, both critical to achieving literacy success.

Which of the following should be the primary focus when using a holistic rubric to score a writing assignment?

A. The overall structure and quality of the writing assignment

B. The appropriate use of vocabulary in the writing assignment

C. The student’s performance on a specific criterion

D. The level of performance for each criterion

A. The overall structure and quality of the writing assignment

Option (A) is correct. Holistic rubrics assess the student’s work as a whole, not just portions of the assignment. The overall structure and quality of the writing assignment is the primary focus and will help the teacher assess properly and with more accuracy.

A fourth-grade teacher is developing a writing assignment, the goal of which is to help students persuade readers to agree with an opinion. Which of the following writing prompts is most appropriate for the assignment?

A. Describe your favorite television show.

B. Write a new episode of your favorite television show.

C. How are the television shows you watch different than the shows your parents watched when they were your age?

D. Should a limit be placed on the amount of time children spend watching television?

D. Should a limit be placed on the amount of time children spend watching television?

Option (D) is correct. This prompt requires students to establish a position and provide reasons to support it so that readers can be persuaded to agree.

Phonemic awareness is important for later student reading development. Which of the following teacher prompts is best for building students’ phonemic awareness?

A. “Listen. I will clap the parts to your name. Jus… tin. How many?” (Students then count.)

B. “Listen. Hat. Say it with a /b/ at the beginning.” (Students then say “bat.”)

C. “Listen. If you are having fun, draw a …” (Students then draw a rhyming word, such as sun).

D. “Listen. Car. What is the last part?” (Students then answer “/ar/.”)

B. “Listen. Hat. Say it with a /b/ at the beginning.” (Students then say “bat.”)

Option (B) is correct. (B) is an example of phonemic awareness (a specific type of phonological awareness). Students must manipulate individual phonemes in order to be successful with the task.

Read the scenario below and then respond to all parts of the task in the space provided. The suggested time to spend on this question is 10 minutes.

Scenario

Mr. Collins has a heterogeneously grouped second-grade class of 28 students. He has observed that 7 of his second-grade students are reading below grade level; 10 others can answer literal questions but cannot make inferences; and 11.

Mr. Collins has a 90-minute language arts block daily and incorporates reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing into the language arts blocks. He uses grouping to address his students’ specific needs. The next day he will be teaching a lesson on birds.

Tasks :

1) List specific instructional or learning activities that demonstrate effective classroom management strategies during the next day’s 90-minute language arts block. Focusing on the topic of birds, your activities must address the reading needs of the following two groups:

Group A: ten second graders who can answer literal questions but cannot make inferences
Group B: eleven second graders who are proficient readers

2) Describe the specific instructional materials or types of instructional materials that would be appropriate to use with Group A and Group B, respectively.

3) Explain how the learning activities and the instructional materials you have identified would meet the needs of the students in Groups A and B, as they learn about birds.

Writing Prompt #1
Read the scenario below and then respond to all parts of the task in the space provided. The suggested time to spend on this question is 10 minutes.

Information about the Student

Julia, a fourth-grade student, has proficient decoding skills but below-average oral reading fluency skills. Her scores on a recent reading unit test indicate that she struggles with summarizing or identifying main ideas and supporting details of most stories. Julia scored below average on an activity that asked students to match synonyms and antonyms with appropriate vocabulary words. The classroom teacher’s anecdotal records indicate that Julia is reluctant to participate in classroom discussions. During silent independent reading, Julia appears distracted and often asks classmates for help.

Tasks :

A) Based on the information provided above, identify and describe two reading difficulties that Julia is experiencing. Support each identified difficulty by including specific details about Julia’s observed behavior.

B) Describe two instructional strategies, one for each reading difficulty identified in Task 1, that Julia’s teacher could use to help Julia improve her reading abilities. Be sure to explain how each strategy would benefit Julia by including specific references to Julia’s reading behaviors.

C) Describe two different assessment strategies that Julia’s teacher could use to monitor Julia’s improvement in reading during the school year. Be sure to include in your response the specific types of information to be collected from the identified assessments and how they will influence Julia’s future instruction.

Writing Prompt #2
Read the scenario below and then respond to all parts of the task in the space provided. The suggested time to spend on this question is 10 minutes.

Scenario

To give his students a model of quality writing, Mr. Garfield provides them with the following excerpt from an informational text about volcanoes.

A new volcano had just been born half a mile from a town on the tiny island called Heimaey (pronounced HAY-may) off the coast of Iceland.

A few hours earlier, when Magnus went to bed, he had no idea that a gigantic plume of magma had risen from 8 miles beneath the earth to a spot just outside his town. Now the earth had split open in a mile-long gash, and a curtain of red-hot lava spurted 500 feet into the air.

Magnus, who was mayor of the town, acted quickly. By eight o’clock in the morning, boats had taken about 5,000 people from Heimaey to safety on the mainland. All the chickens went by boat, too. Sheep got special treatment—they were flown out.

About 300 people stayed behind, hoping they could do something to save their town. Hot ash that looked like fine black gravel fell in a dark blizzard that buried some of their homes. Lava flowed toward town, making a tinkling sound. Slowly, it covered and burned building after building in its path. Worst of all, lava crept toward the island’s harbor. If it flowed much farther, it could close the mouth of the harbor, and hundreds of fishermen would have nowhere to bring their catch.

Tasks

1. Identify the topics of two minilessons that Mr. Garfield can use to facilitate students’ understanding of good informational writing. For each topic, choose one example from the excerpt that would be good for students to mimic.

2. Briefly describe a minilesson on one of the topics identified in Task 1. Be sure to include what the teacher and students will do during the minilesson. Explain how the instruction will foster students’ growth in the area of writing.

Writing Prompt #3

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