Poetry Packet Review

Litote
saying less than is true (ex. his car cost a pretty penny)

Metonymy
substitution of a closely associated term (ex. the pot is boiling)

Synecdoche
using parts for the whole (ex. all hands on deck)

Assonance
similarity of sound in the middle of words (ex. the “eh” sound in “melody” and “repelling”)

single rhyme
only the last syllables rhyme (ex. “return” and “concern”)

double rhyme
only the last two syllables rhyme (ex. “attendant” and “defendant”)

triple rhyme
only the last three syllables rhyme (ex. “international” and “irrational”)

imperfect rhyme
when two words have the same end spelling but a different sound (ex. “love” and “stove”)

internal rhyme
word in the middle of the line rhymes with the word on the end of the line, or two interior lines rhyme (ex. “here we go to the show” – go and show rhyme)

Iambic
2 syllables per foot
accent pattern: de dum (unaccented, accented)
ex: to-day, a-way

Trochaic
2 syllables per foot
accent pattern: dum de (accented, unaccented)
ex. com-ing, base-ball

Anapestic
3 syllables per foot
accent pattern: de de dum (unaccented, unaccented, accented)
ex. lem-on-ade, can-non-ball

Dactylic
3 syllables per foot
accent pattern: dum de de (accented, unaccented, unaccented)
ex. vic-tor-ies, beau-ti-ful

Spondees
2 syllables per foot
accent pattern: dum dum (accented, accented)
ex. may-day, heart-break, short-cake

Number of feet in a line
ex. monometer, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, octameter

inversion
when meter varies within a line

rhymed couplet
2 lines with identical rhymes (aa)

heroic couplet
2 lines of iambic pentameter (aa)

tercet or triplet
3 lines of any meter or rhyme scheme

quatrain
4 lines of any meter or rhyme scheme

ballad
4 lines
1st and 3rd lines – iambic tetrameter
2nd and 4th lines – iambic trimeter
(abab) or (abcb)

quintet
5 lines of any meter or rhyme scheme

sestet
6 lines – often 3 sets of couplets (aabbcc)

rime royal
7 lines of iambic pentameter (ababbcc)

spenserian stanza
8 lines of iambic pentameter + 1 line of iambic hexameter (ababbcbcc)

sonnet
14 lines iambic pentameter
(ababcdcdefefgg) or (abbaabbacdecde)

blank verse
any iambic pentameter that is unrhymed

free verse
no regular meter or rhyme scheme

acrostic
the first letter in successive lines spelling a word or rhymes

narrative poetry
usually tells a complete story and its purpose is to reveal events

lyric poetry
usually presents a short episode and its purpose is to reveal emotion

folk ballad
written by collective authors, often developed through generations

literary ballad
written by an identifiable author, style more flexible

didactic
written to teach a specific academic lesson

dramatic
story unfolds through conversation

elegy
a lament written in memory of someone

epigram
short, funny poem, often using word play and satire

epitaph
short elegy, usually written for tombstones

fable
brief story with a moral

light verse
humorous poem concerning trivial events

limerick
5 line jingle (aabba)

ode
narrative poem of praise, usually quite lengthy

pastoral
poem dealing with nature or rural life

metonymy
changes the spiritual to the physical (ex. “he has a lot of heart”, “what a brain she is”)

synecdoche
part for the whole (ex. 40 head of cattle, give them a hand, the pot is boiling)

long vowels
tend to carry more emotion than other sounds

hard consonants
analytical, impediments to smoothness

scansion
technique of notation where the stesses are shown

feminine ending
an extra unstressed beat at the end of a line, often to emphasize a character’s sense of contemplation

inversion
reversing the order of the stresses of an iambi to help emphasize certain words or ideas

Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet
A B B A A B B A C D E C D E
One octave (ABBAABBA) – presents an argument, observation, question, theme, or experience
Shift occurs between 8th and 9th line
Sestet (CDECDE) – answers the question, clarifies, responds, or comments on the theme

English (Shakesperian) Sonnet
A B A B C D C D E F E F G G
1st quatrain (ABAB) – states the theme
2nd quatrain (CDCD) – develops the theme
3rd quatrain (EFEF) – develops the theme
Couplet (GG) – gives a summary, conclusion, amplification, or reversal of the previous 3 stanzas
Shift placement is flexible (FANBOYS)

Spenserian Sonnet
A B A B B C B C C D C D E E
3 quatrains – develop 3 distinct but closely related ideas
couplet – different idea (shift usually occurs here)

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