Music Appreciation Test 4

nationalism
inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer’s homeland

exoticism
use of melodies, rhythms, or instruments that suggest foreign lands

program music
instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene

chromatic harmony
use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included in the chromatic scale

rubato
slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo to intensify the expression of the music

thematic transformation
alteration of the character of a theme by means of changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm, when it returns in a later movement or section

postlude
the section at the end of an art song that sums up its mood, played by the piano or orchestra without voice

lied(er)
German and Dutch for song, describes the setting of romantic German poems to music

strophic form
vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem

through composed form
vocal form in which there is new music for each stanza of a poem

modified strophic form
form in which two or more stanzas of poetry are set to the same music while other stanzas have new music

absolute music
instrumental music having no intended association with a story, poem, idea, or scene

idee fixe
single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea

leitmotif
short musical idea associated with a person, object or thought, characteristics of the operas of Wagner

impressionism
musical style which stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Debussy

atonality
absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much music of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries

polyrhythm
use of two or more contrasting and independent rhythms at the same time, often found in music later than 1900

neoclassicism
musical style marked by emotional restraint, balance, and clarity, inspired by the forms and stylistic features of eighteenth century music

primitivism
evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds

African vocal technique
using the throat to accompany singing

symphony
orchestral composition usually in four movements, typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes, exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the orchestra

opera
drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large scale composition employing vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery

art song
setting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poem’s mood and imagery into music common in the romantic period

song cycle
group of art songs unified by a story line that runs through their poems, or by musical ideas linking the songs

etude
(study); a piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties

polonaise
composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a Polish court dance

program symphony
symphony related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each movement usually has a descriptive title

concert overture
independent composition for orchestra in one movement, usually in sonata form, often found in the romantic period

tin pan alley
collection of NYC songwriters and composers, it refers to a bunch of pianos playing together that sounds like the banging of tin pans in an alley

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