Ad hominem argument
From the Latin meaning “to or against the man,” this is an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect.
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words ( as in ” she sells sea shells”).
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them.
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun. The AP language exam occasionally asks for the _______ of a given pronoun in a long, complex sentence or in a group of sentences.
A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or moral principle. (If the authorship is unknown, the statement is generally considered to be a folk proverb.)
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity.
The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author’s choice of objects that are described.
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.
~ expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
~ cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent clause.
The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing.
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects.
The nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning.
The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color.
Related to style, refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness.
From the Greek, literally means, “teaching.” Primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
From the Greek for “good speech,” are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts.
developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
Figure of speech
is where a word or words are used to create an effect, often where they do not have their original or literal meaning.
where the word is used to heighten or increase the state that they are describing
Many compare dissimilar things. Include, for example, apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron. Paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.
This term describes traditions for each genre. Helps to define each genre; for example, they differentiate between an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and political writing.
The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama.
This term literally means “sermon,” but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual device.
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. Often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible. Often produces irony at the same time.
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions.
To draw reasonable conclusions from the information presented.
An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
b) Situational Irony
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c) Dramatic irony
The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true.
a)the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s (or speaker’s) true meaning.
b) events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen.
c)facts or events are unknown to a character on a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.
A type of sentence where the main idea comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses.
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for another, suggesting similarity.
figure of speech where the name of an object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it
The prevailing atmosphere of emotional aura of a work
indicative ______= used only for factual sentences
subjunctive _____ = used for doubtful or conditional attitude
imperative ______ = used for commands
the telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
figure of speech where natural sounds are imitated in sounds of words
figure of speech where the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest an paradox
statement that appears to be self contradictory or opposed to common sense
gramatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity
a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of a comic effect or ridicule
an adjective that describes words, phrases or general tone that is overly scholar;y, academic, or bookish
a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. proceeded by by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone.
a figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions
point of view
a) first-person narrator = tells the story with the first person pronoun, “I” and is a character
b) third person narrator = relates the events with third person pronouns, “he,she,it”
one type of subject complement- an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb. modifies/ describes the subject
sub complement- noun, group of nouns, or noun clause that re names the subject. follows a linking verb
major division of genre, refers to fiction and non fiction including all its forms
the duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language, such as sound, word phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.
describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
Describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing.
a) exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion
b)argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation having the additional aim of urging some form of action.
c)description is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, vent, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses in description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque
d)narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. This writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
a question that is asked merely for its effect and does not requite a reply
involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something
a work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule.
An explicit comparison, normally using like, as, or if.
Has 2 purposes:
1. An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices.
2. Classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors
The word (with any accompanying phrases) or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes, the subject of the sentence by either (1) renaming it or (2) describing it.
Like all clauses, this word group contains both a subject and a verb (plus any accompanying phrases or modifiers), but unlike the independent clause, the ________ clause cannot stand alone; it does not express a complete thought. Also called a dependent clause, the ________ clause depends on a main clause, to complete its meaning. Easily recognized key words and phrases usually being these clauses – for example: although, because, unless, if, even though, since, as soon as, while, who, when, where, how, and that.
From the Greek from “reckoning together,” a ________is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises – the first one called “major” and the second “minor” – that inevitable lead to a sound of conclusion.
A _______ conclusion is valid only if each of the two premises is valid.
Generally, anything that represents or stands for something else.
One system classifies ______ in three categories.
1. Natural _______ use objects and occurrences from nature to represent ideas commonly associated with them
2. Conventional _________ are those that have been invested with meaning by a group
3. Literary _______ are sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are found in a variety of works and are generally recognized.
The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.
The central idea or message of the work, the insight it offers into life.
In expository writing, the ____ statement is the sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author’s opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition.
Similar to mood, ____ descries the author’s attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both
A word or phrase that links different ideas. Used especially, although not exclusively, in expository and argumentative writing,_____ effectively signal a shift from one idea to another.
The ironic minimalizing of fact, understatement presents something as less significant than it is. The effect can frequently be humorous and emphatic. The opposite of hyperbole.
An intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. A ___ty statement is humorous, while suggesting the speaker’s verbal power in creating ingenious and perceptive marks. It usually uses terse language that makes a pointed statement
Strictly defined, refers to nouns that name physical objects.
When an essay uses this phrase, look for the writer’s sensory description. Appealing to the visual sense is usually the most predominant, but don’t overlook other sensory detail.
The figures of speech, syntax, diction, and other stylistic elements that collectively produce a particular artistic effect.
When you’re asked to “analyze the _____,” concentrate on how the elements of ______ combine to form a whole— how diction, syntax, figurative language, and sentence structure create a cumulative effect.
This term describes the tools of the storyteller (also used in nonfiction), such as ordering events so that they build to a climactic moment or withholding information until a crucial or appropriate moment when revealing it creates a desired effect
The style of telling the “story,” even if the passage is nonfiction. Concentrate on the order of events and on their detail in evaluating a writer’s technique
When asked to analyze an author’s _________, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations— words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze how these words complement the writer’s argument as it builds logically.
When asked to write a _________, you should present a coherent argument in which the evidence builds to a logical and relevant conclusion
Resources of language
This phrase refers to all the devices of composition available to a writer, such as diction, syntax, sentence structure, and figures of speech
This phrase refers to how a phrase is constructed. If asked to consider rhetorical structure, look at the passage’s organization and how the writer combines images, details, or arguments to serve his or her purpose.
When an essay question asks you to analyze ____________, look at the type of sentences the author uses. Remember that the basic __________s are simple, compound, and complex, and variations created with sentence combining. Also consider variation or lack of it in sentence length, any unusual devices in sentence construction, such as repetition or inverted word order, and any unusual word or phrase placement.
An essay that mentions ________ is asking you to note and analyze all of the elements in language that contribute to style— such as diction, syntax, tone, attitude, figures of speech, connotations, and repetition.