Literary Movements

amatory fiction
romantic fiction written in the 18th and 19th centuries. notable authors: Eliza Haywood, Delarivier Manley

Cavalier Poets
17th century English royalist poets, writing primarily about courtly love, called Sons of Ben (after Ben Jonson). notable authors: Richard Lovelace, William Davenant

Metaphysical Poets
17th century English movement using extended conceit, often (thought not always) about religion. notable authors: John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell

The Augustans
18th century literary movement based chiefly on classical ideals, satire, and skepticism. notable authors: Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift

Romanticism
19th century (1800 to 1860) movement emphasizing emotion and imagination, rather than logic and scientific thought. response to the enlightenment. notable authors: Victor Hugo, Lord Byron, and Camilo Castelo Branco

Gothic Novel
Fiction in which romantic ideals are combined with an interest in the supernatural and in violence. notable authors: Ann Radcliffe, Bram Stoker

Lake Poets
a group of Romantic poets from the English Lake District who wrote about nature and the sublime. notable authors: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge

American Romanticism
distinct from European Romanticism, the American form emerged somewhat later, was based more in fiction than in poetry, and incorporated a (somewhat almost suffocating) awareness of history, particularly in the darkest aspects of American history. notable authors: Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne

Pre-Raphaelitism
19th century, primarily English movement based ostensibly on undoing innovations by the painter Raphael. many were both painters and poets. notable authors: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti

Transcendentalism
19th century American movement: poetry and philosophy concerned with self-reliance, independence from modern technology. notable authors: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau

Dark Romanticism
19th century American movement in reaction to Transcendentalism. finds man inherently sinful and self-destructive and nature a dark, mysterious force. notable authors: Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, George Lippard

Realism
late-19th century movement based on the simplification of style and image and an interest in poverty and everyday concerns. notable authors: Gustave Flaubert, William Dean Howells, Stendhal, Honore de Balzac, Leo Tolstoy, Frank Norris, Eca de Queiroz

Naturalism
also late-19th century. proponents of the movement believe hereditary and environment control people. notable authors: Emile Zola, Stephen Crane

Symbolism
principally French movement of the fin de siecle based on the structure of thought rather than poetic form or image; influential for English language poets from Edgar Allan Poe to James Merrill. notable authors: Stephane Mallarme, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Valery

Stream of consciousness
early-20th century fiction consisting of literary representation of quotidian thought, without authorial presence. notable authors: Virginia Woolf, James Joyce

Modernism
variegated movement of the early 20th century, encompassing primitivism, formal innovation, or reaction to science and technology. notable authors: Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, H.D., James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, Fernando Pessoa

The Lost Generation
it was traditionally attributed to Gertrude Stein and was then popularized by Ernest Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel “The Sun Also Rises”, and his memoir “A Moveable Feast”. it refers to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts of Europe from the time period who saw the end of WWI to the beginning of the Great Depression. notable authors: F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Ezra Pound, Waldo Pierce

Dada
touted by its proponents as anti-art, dada focused on going against artistic norms and conventions. notable authors: Guillaume Apollinaire, Kurt Schwitters

First World War Poets
poets who documented both the idealism and the horrors of the war and the period in which it tool place. notable authors: Siegfried Sasson, Rupert Brooke

Imagism
poetry based on description rather than theme, and on the motto “the natural object is always the adequate symbol”. notable authors: Ezra Pound, H.D., Richard Aldington

Harlem Renaissance
african american poets, novelists, and thinkers, often employing elements of blues and folklore, based in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City in the 1920’s. notable authors: Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston

Surrealism
originally a French movement, influenced by surrealist painting, that uses surprising images and transitions to play off of formal expectations and depict the unconscious rather than the conscious mind. notable authors: Jean Cocteau, Jose Maria Hinoiosa, Andre Breton

postmodernism
postwar movement skeptical of absolutes and embracing diversity, irony, and word play. notable authors: Jorge Luis Borges, Thomas Pynchon, Alasdair Gray

Black Mountain Poets
a self-identified group of poets, originally based at Black Mountain College, who eschewed patterned form in favor of the rhythms and inflections of the human voice. notable authors: Charles Olson, Denise Levertov

Beat poets
american movement of the 1950’s and 60’s concerned with counterculture and youthful alienation. notable authors: Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs, Ken Kesey

Confessional Poetry
poetry that, often brutally, exposes the self as part of an aesthetic of the beauty and power of human frailty. notable authors: Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, Alicia Ostriker

Magical Realism
literary movement in which magical elements appear in otherwise realistic circumstances. most often associated with the Latin American literary boom of the 20th century. notable authors: Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Octavio Paz, Julio Cortazar

Spoken Word
a postmodern literary movement where writers use their speaking voice to present fiction, poetry, monologues, and storytelling arising in the 1980’s in the urban centers of the United States. the textual origins differ and may have been written for print initially then read aloud for audiences. notable authors: Spalding Gray, Laurie Anderson, Pedro Pietri, Piri Thomas, Giannina Braschi

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