Home Front

1. Source A was from a book published in 1990 called ‘waiting for the all clear’. It was written to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Blitz and it was also written to celebrate Britain’s victory. I can learn that people during the Blitz didn’t have to be in a uniform to be heores, they kept their cool, determination and courage, they didn’t let anything get them down. The source gives no contrary details to the source as in whether the morale boost was all over the country or just in specific places and how long they continued to be on this boost for. This is also a secondary source.

2. Sources B and C show both the good and bad aspects of the constant bombing. Source B is a picture of men placing dead bodies into body-bags at Catford Girls’ school in london on 21st January 1943 where it was bombed on 20th January 1943 during an air raid.

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Source C shows a picture dated 15th September 1940 showing people with all of their belongings cheering and chanting with smiles on their faces despite their homelessness, this happened during the air raids in North London, the night before where their houses where demolished, their houses wrecked but the tennants’ of the buildings still showed the British courage and determination. This was used as propaganda towards the public by the media.

The Goverment did censor source B because they thought it would show a ‘dent in their armour’ and it would also lower many of the British peoples morale. They didn’t try to censor source C because they could use it as propaganda. The Goverment had many motives for the censorship of many photographs and for the use of propaganda for the use in the media because of fear of morale boosts or morale loss. They censored them as they feared that it would make the British give up and give in to the Germans, but some of the photos they had they used to their advantage and used it for the boost of morale and make the British fight against the Germans with more guts and determination to defeat them. Sources B and C are primary sources.

The source help me evaluate the extent to the effects of the Blitz that Source C was Propaganda and Source B is showing the Goverments fears and the extent of the bombings.

3.Source D is a photo showing people with their belongings in the streets among the attrocities there. It was taken on the 15th November 1940 after an air raid on Coventry, but was not published until February 1941, but it was not censored by the Goverment but on the other hand;

Source B is a photo is a photo of men placing dead bodies in body bags at Catford Girls’ School. The photo was taken on the 21st January 1943 after an air raid the day before (20th January 1943), when they was hit and therefore censored by the Goverment and the Goverment also thought that it would lower the morale of the British and show a weakness in their defences.

Source C wasn’t censored because it was a picture of people in the streets cheering and chanting, smiling and even though they were homeless, they wasn’t going to be beat, and wanted to show the British courage and determination. It was taken on the 15th September 1940 in North London after houses there the night before were bombed. The media censored most of their material as they thought it would once again lower the Britsh morale, but then they had a change of heart and used it as propaganda by probably telling the British to fight to prevent the same happening again. Even though the bombing left thousands homeless, the bombing clearly went on for a very long period of 3 years. The connection between sources C and D is that they both can be used as propaganda. They happened within two months of each other.

4. September 1940 was the beginning of the Blitz, the Goverment were aware of the threat of invasion the Germans posed, especially attacks on London.The Goverment were also concerned about the morale of the British people in the Autumn as it additionally shows understanding of the national situation in September 1940 and as the threat on Britain had passed but they know the aims of the Germans would continue with their attacks on London.

Source e is an extract from a secret report to the Govermantby the Ministry of Information, 10th September 1940 and contains that when the sirens go people run madly for shelters. Citizens Advice Bureau was unindated with mothers and young children hysterical asking to be removed from the district immeadietly. Flights from the East End growing rapidly and taxi drivers report taking group after group to Euston and Paddington railway stations with their belongings. This is a primary source and this poses how scared and frightened people were and not to mention that they knew they had to escape before the Germans invaded, and people didn’t think it was going to be long before they did.

Source f is fom Harold Nicholson’s diary and it ws dated 17th September 1940. Harold knew several members of the Goverment. His diary extract is a primary source and says that everyone who is worried about the feeling in the East End of London where there is much bitterenss. It was also said that even the King and Queen were booed the other day whilst visiting the destroyed areas. This is showing pretty much the same as Source E but the King and Queen go to the destroyed areas to boost morale. The Goverment wanted to boost morale but was very concerned about the effects of the panic upon the people of Britain, but had to show they won’t be scared out of their country.

Source G is from the book ‘Don’t you know there’s a war on’ published in 1988. It says that as long as there were men and women to to continue reproduction, the country’s economic life could continue and the planes, tanks and armaments roll off the assembly lines. Attnedance at work remained suprisingly good in most areas, their was failure in the East End’s attendance at work mainly because the areas around there had been very badly hit and the places that were standing the workers were frightened for their own safety and knew it wouldn’t be long before their building would had of been hit.

Understandably there was widespread fear during the Blitz. This frequently. This frequently led to flights of entire communities into the countryside, or ‘trekking’ as it was known at one time. So, Londoners escaped to Epping Forest during the bombing of the East End. Yet many of those who trekked into the the countryside were the same people who continuously turned up for work. This is a Secondary source that is simply saying that people who fled for safety in the countryside, continually turned up for work because they knew they had a commitment to keep to but still wanted to be safe from the danger sites such as cities.

5. It is difficult to assess whether the British face the Blitz with courage and unity as it’s a myth because sources A and C show that they were united as Source A is an extract from a book called ‘waiting for the all clear’ published in 1990 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Blitz and it was also written to celebrate Britain’s victory. I can learn that people during the Blitz didn’t have to be in a uniform to be heores, they kept their cool, determination and courage, they didn’t let anything get them down. The source gives no contrary details to the source as in whether the morale boost was all over the country or just in specific places and how long they continued to be on this boost for. Those at home in the most appauling circumstances kept their sense of humour. “Their memories will break your heart and make you smile.” This is a secondary source.

Source C is a photo published 15th August 1940 which was taken during the raids on London, the night before some North London houses were bombed. Their houses are wrecked but the tennants of the buildings still showed the British courage and determination even though they are all homeless. This is a primary source as it is not passed on by word of mouth as it’s a photo caught at the right time. It is also propaganda.

On the other hand sources D and G are both united and not united because source d is a photo taken on the 15th November 1940 after an air raid on Coventry, but was not published until February 1941 which shows people with their belongings amongst the attrocities in the streets, this was not censored but is a primary source.

Source G is a secondary source and is fom the book ‘Don’t you know there is a war on’ published in 1988, it states that as long as there are men and women to continue production, the country’s economic life could. So, Londoners escaped to Epping Forest during the bombing of the East End. Yet many of those who trekked into the the countryside were the same people who continuously turned up for work. This is a Secondary source that is simply saying that people who fled for safety in the countryside, continually turned up for work because they knew they had a commitment to keep to but still wanted to be safe from the danger sites such as cities.

Sources B,E and f were not showing that the British were united during the Blitz. Source b is a primary source and is a photo showing men placing dead bodies into body bags at Catford Girls’ School after it was bombed the day before (20th January 1943), this photo, the goverment tried to censor because they thought it would show a weakness in their defences and also might lower the British morale.

Source E is a primary source and is a report to the Goverment by the Ministry of Information dated 10th September 1940 which stated that when the sirens went people ran frantically for shelter. Citizens Advice Bureau was unindated with calls from hysterical mothers with young children begging to be removed from the district immeadietly due to the constant bombing. Flight’s from the East End growing rapidly. Taxi drivers report taken group after group to Euston and Paddington railway stations with all of their belongings.

Source f is an extract from Harold Nicholson’s diary dated 17th November 1940 and has in it that everyone is worried about the feeling in the East End of London where there is much bitterness. It is said that even the King and Queen were booed the other day whilst visiting the destroyed areas. This is a primary source.

With use of all the sources and my own knowledge I can come to a conclusion that the British faced the Blitz with courage and unity, their approach is not a myth, thats’s not true. Amongst all the homelessness and censorship came bravery and courage aswell as unity amid the British residents, they weren’t going to be beat at mind games by Germany and therefore for ‘hanging in’ there was the result of them winning World War II. Even though there wasn’t many shelters available people improvised by using the tube stations as a shelter. They can with-stand a major blast and therefore doing that saved many residents. It may have left them homeless but I think they rather would have been homeless rather than dead.

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