CSET Subset One

Ballad
A short narrative poem.
It is written to be sung, with dramatic action.
Ballads have a plot. Tells of love, death, the supernatural, or a combo.
They are usually tragic, sometimes comedic.
Lyric
Short verse poem about a “lyric moment”
The form is as old as Egypt (as early as 2600 BCE). Examples exist in early Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.
Common traits of the ballad
The beginning is often abrupt
The story is told through dialogue and action
language is simple/folksy
contains repetition (usually a refrain is repeated, with small variations)
quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimeter
Which form of writing was popular with the Romantic poets
Ballads
Common traits of the lyric
A short poem (usually no more than a dozen lines long
It is written in stanzas
It is designed to be set to music.
It is without a plot.
Unlike a ballad, it has no chronology of events
It expresses the feelings, perceptions, and thoughts of a single poetic speaker ( not nec the poet)
it is intensely personal and emotional.
It is often written about a moment of contemplation and appreciation
it has the form and musical quality of a song
The term “lyrical” can also be applied to…
any prose or verse characterized by a spontaneous outpouring of intense feeling
Types of lyrics include
sonnet
ode
elegy
Ode
Traditionally: it is long and complex.
It had a serious subject and elevated diction.
Ode was invented by?
Pindar, a greek poet.
His odes were modeled on the choral songs of Greek drama.
They were encomiums (written to give public praise), usually to athletes who had been successful in the Olmpic games.
What was the ode like when it developed in England?
Romantic poets like Keats and Wordsworth modified the Pindaric form to suit their own purposes.
They created something that was more like the Roman ode.
did they create the horatian ode?
Horatian Ode
Modeled after the Roman poet Horace.
Was more personal, meditative and restrained.
Ode to Autumn by Keats and Ode to Duty by Wordsworth
The romantic poets ignored the emotional restraint part of the Horatian ode.
Romantic form of the Ode has three elements
description of a specific outdoor natural scene
an extended meditation, stimulated by this scene (may be about a private problem or a universal situation, or both)
an insight, resolution or decision, which brings a new perspective
examples: Wordsworth’s “Ode:Intimations of Immortality,” Coleridge’s “Dejection: An Ode,” and Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind”
Elegy
A meditative lyric poem.
In classical Greek+Roman literature, an “elegy” was a poem written in elegiac meter (alternating hexameter and pentameter lines)
Today, it can be a lament about any subject in any meter (such as love, death of a person or a way of life)
Traits of the elegy
begins with an invocation of the muse
it laments and celebrates a dead person
allusions to classical mythology
poetic speaker who uses first person
raises questions about justice, fate or providence
tends to be longer than a sonnet but not as long as an epic.
its not plot-driven
it ends with the poets finding consolation in the idea that there is something larger than the life or death of one person
Epigram
its a short poem with a clever twist at the end OR a concise and witty statement.
Origin of epigram
In Greece as a form of inscription on a monument/grave.
epigram in Greek= to write on.
what is this an example of?
Here lies my wife: here let her lie!
Now she’s at rest— and so am I.
Epigram
Non poetic epigrams
brief+witty statements are also epigrams
“I can resist everything except temptation”
“The only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it”
Hyperbole!
it is an exaggeration.
Naturalism
literary movement of late 19th century emphasizing extreme realism.
rhetoric
any type of effective use of language, especially designed to persuade.
scansion
the analysis of poetic meter
elegy
a long poem mourning the death of an individual or a poem on a somber theme.
anachronism
something placed in the wrong time period.
beat generation
group of American writers during the 50s and 60s who sought to express their alienation from society through their art (jack kerouac, allen ginsberg)
synecdoche
a part to represent the whole
wheels to mean car
smokes for cigs
epigraph
short quotation at the beginning of a work to indicate its theme
epithet
an adjective added to the name of a person/thing to describe it
Ivan the Terrible
didactic
a term to describe a piece of writing whose purpose is to instruct
deconstruction
an attempt to get at the “primal truth” of a text
epigram
short, witty statement, often sarcastic
Which school of literary criticism tries to look at literature with scientific objectivity?
structuralism
this school of literary criticism began in the early 1900s out of the fields of anthro, socio, psych and lit criticism.
structuralism
Literature is seen as a system with a structure than can be studied. Text is the function of a system, not of an individual (author)
Looks at the underlying structure
structuralism
Each text is made up the already written. No piece of writing is original.
structuralism
Ferdinand de Saussure, Noam Chomsky, Roman Jakobson, Jaceques Lacan are….
Structuralists.
Formalism (a school of lit criticism) began in
Russia int he 1920s and 1930s as a reaction against interpreting texts by considering their historical circumstances of intentions of the author.
Became popular in the US during the 1940s and 50’s. still popular today.
A school of lit criticism that studies the form of the work rather than the content
formalism
Formalism focuses on what?
features of a text itself, rather than on its creation or its reception.
Which school of lit critic is VERY similar to formalism?
New criticism.
Which school of lit critic reads text closely and rejects criticism based on extrinsic info.
New critics.
This school of lit crit sees the text as complete with in itself and not dependent on its relation to the authors life, intent, or history.
New critics.
Weaknesses of New Criticism
ignores diversity
a piece of lit can be important because it represents values that a segment of the culture believes are important, or because it can help us understand history.
context can be as important as form to understanding a work.
This approach originated in the work of Austrian psychoanalyst Freud.
Psychoanalytic Critcism
After 1950, which critics began to emphasize the ways in which authors create works that appeal to readers repressed wishes and fantasies?
Psychoanalytic Crit.
Psychoanalytic Crit. focuses on what?
focuses on the psychology of the reader and the text, rather than focusing on the author/authors psyche.
This school of lit crit looks at the role of class, ideology, and revolutionary thought as reflected in texts
marxist
Marxist crit is concerned with what rather than literary devices/hidden meanings?
historical context
Literary works are seen as tainted products of exploited labor, acc to which school of lit crit?
Marxist
Names associated with Marxist crit
Marx
Terry Eagleton
Friedrich Engels
This school of lit crit began in France but became popular in the US in the mid to late 1900s.
Post structuralism
This school of lit crit arose as a reaction against strucuturalism and the belief that language can represent logical, finite truths.
post structuralism
What is the goal of post structuralists?
to show, by examining tests, that the truth is resistant to scientific methodology.
Post structuralists see ‘reality’ as….
fragmented, diverse and tenuous.
We live in a linguistic universe.
Language is made of up symbols. So, we can only speak of only what we have symbols for.
There is a limit to knowledge and it’s impossible to arrive at final theories of final truths.
this activity is involved with post-structuralism
Deconstruction
Michel Foucalt, Roland Barthes, Derrida and Louis Althusser are….
Post structuralists.
___ Involves the close reading of texts in order to demonstrate that any given text has contradictory meanings, rather than being a unified, logical whole.
Deconstruction
___ critics assume that a work of literature has a meaning that can be found in the relation between its parts (allusions, images, rhythms, etc)
Formalists
____ reject the view that a text is unified from beginning to end, or that its meaning can be identified.
Deconstructors
“____ is not a dismantling of the structure of a text, but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself. Its apparently solid ground is no rock but thin air” .
Deconstruction
Became popular in America in the late 1970s and is concerned with the representation of women in literature.
Feminist Crit.
Goals of feminist critics
To examine how female characters are portrayed in literature to expose the patriarchal ideology implicit in the literary canon
to increase awareness of sexual politics in language
uncover the female tradition of writing (rediscovering old texts)
study writings by women to find out how women writers through the ages have perceived themselves
Feminist critics point out that bc women are members of different societies, they have different concerns.
feminists of color/3rd wave fem/post colonial fem/lesbian fem stress that women are….
not defined solely by the fact that they are female!
Factors like religion, class, and sexual orientation are important too. that makes the problems and goals of one group of women diff than those of another.
Feminist critics
Isobell and Nancy Armstrong, Barbara Bowen, Jennifer Devere BRody, Laura Brown, Margaret anne doody, eva figes, sandra gilbert, susan gubar, gayayri spivak, judith butler, toril moi, lisa tuttle.
arose in early 1900s.
a subset of post structural crit theory
came from post struc theory and deconstruction
related to womens studies
queer theory
builds on the feminist study of gender. its all about the nature of sexual identities
queer theory
Queer theorists engage in “queer readings of text” with the goal of…
exploring the categorization of gender and sexuality.
they argue that it cannot be categorized or labeled.
they deconstruct texts to examine the relationship between gender and character, and to subvert the assumption that heterosexuality is “normal”
Eve Kosofsky Swedwick, Judith Butler, Michel Foucault, Andrienne RIch, Diana Fuss, Lauren Berlant, Teresa de Lauretis, David Halperin.
This school of literary criticism is also called “contextualism”
New Historicism. Developed in the 1980s and was popular in the 1990’s
This school of thought is a reaction against the new criticism.
It focuses on a work’s historical content and the relationship between the text and other factors , like the authors life or intentions in writing the work
New Historicism! ! !
New Historicism was influenced by the _______ and the ______ theories of the 1970’s and by the ___________ of the 1980s.
Influenced by the poststructuralist and reader-response theories of the 1970’s and by the feminist and Marxist criitics of the 1980s/
____ involves the analysis of texts produced in countries that have come under the control of European colonial powers at some point in their history.
Post colonial Crit
Post colonial critics focus on the way in which…
the colonizing 1st world invents false, stereotypical images of the third world to justify its exploitation.
these critics look at the literature that arises after the colonizer has left as its victims grapple with the consequences of having been exploited.
Post colonial crit
Common themes of post colonial crit
rape metaphor (J.M coetzee’s Disgrace)
racial self-hatred
the struggle to resurrect native culture/ folklore.
Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, Frantz Fanon, Homi K. Bhabha, Chinua Achebe
Important names associated with postcolonial criticism and theory
____ suggests that the reader “co-authors” the text by the act of reading it.
Reader- response crit
this approach arose in the 1960’s as a reaction against New Criticism, which ignores the role of the reader in determining the meaning of a text
reader response crit
How is reader response crit similar to new historicism?
How does it differ?
similar: values the reader
different: reader response critics are not interested in exploring the writer’s intentions.
How is reader response theory the opposite of formalism and new criticism?
these text-oriented theories dont take the readers role interpreting literary works into account.
Normal Holland
Stanley FIsh
Wolfgang Iser
Hans- robert Jauss
Roland Barthes
Louise Roseblatt
C. S Lewis
reader response criticism
PRE-CLASSICAL AND CLASSICAL PERIODS
(Greek and Roman)
1200BC-455 AD
Homeric Period/Pre-Classical
1200-800 BC
Before the classical period.
It is marked by the two epic poems by Homer: The Iliad and The Odyssey.
It developed out of older legends, among the great works of Western literature- the prototype for all subsequent Western Epic poetry.

Greek legends were passed along orally.

Pre-classical and classical periods
The Iliad
From the Homeric Period/ Pre-classical period
it is a tragedy about the Trojan War.
it centers on Achiles, who embodied the Greek heroic ideal.
Pre-classical and classical periods
The Odyssey
It is a tragedy and comedy
It is a story of Odysseus, returning from troy to his homeland.
During 10 year voyage, he loses his comrades and ships and makes his way home disguised as a beggar.
Classical Greek Period ( 800-200 BC)
The Golden Age of Greece: sophisticated period of the polis (city-state) and early democracy.
Some of the worlds finest art, poetry, drama, architecture, philosophy originate in Athens.
Forms of Pre-classical and Classical Periods
Poetry, Drama (tragedies, comedies)
Pre-classical and classical periods
Epic poem
a poem using formal verse, celebrating achievements of heroes and gods
Pre-classical and classical periods
Themes
life/death
morality
seasonal change
political commentary
satire
Greek Drama was rooted in the Athenian festivals of the 7th century, honoring the Greek god Dionysius.
Pre-classical and classical periods
Augustan (Roman) Age
31 BC- AD 14
Age of Roman Emperor Caeser Augustus (first emperor, aka Octavian)
during which art and lit flourished.

Also known as the Golden Age of Latin literature
(not the same as the later augustan age during which the 18th century writers adopted the style, themes, and structure of classical texts.

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Pre-classical and classical periods
Patristic Period
70-455 AD
Early Christian writings, Christianity spreads across Europe

Rome falls to barbarian attack in 455.

Pre-classical and classical periods
Greek Authors
Homer, Virgil, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophenes, Aesop.
Pre-classical and classical periods
Latin Authors
Virgil, Horace ( ars poetica), ovid (metamorphoses)
Pre-classical and classical periods
Philosophers
Socrates
Plato
Aristotle
Pre-classical and classical periods
Saint Jerome
He translates the Bible into Latin in the 4th century, this version is called the Vulgate.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Old English Period/Dark Ages
428-1066
Rome falls and barbarian tribes move into Europe
– Goths, Angles, Saxons migrate to Britain.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Medieval Period
1066, normal french armies invade and conquer england under william 1.
this marks end of anglo-saxon hierarchy and emergence of the 12th century renaissance.

french chivalric romances and fables spread. they become popular.

latin becomes the dominant written language.

THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
The Black Death
1348-1350
One of the most devastating pandemics in human history.
it killed 30-60 percent of Europes population in the 14th century.
Aftermath of the plague- series of religious, social, and economic upheavels.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Literary Themes
religious devotion, chivalric code/honor
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Epic poetry
important form for recording legends that had been handed down by word of mouth
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Romances
narrative stories of adventure, fantasy, chivalry, knightly love.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Lyric Poetry
wandering minstrels composed songs of love to entertain noblemen
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Beowulf
Authors are unknown. this is around the 10th century.
first major work in Old English
Heroic poem.
Set in Scandinavia.
Epic hero Beowulf defeats the monster Grendel to become king of the Geats.
It is possibly a product of oral tradition, inconsistent mix of pagan and Christian imagery.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Marie de France (12th century)
she introduced a new genre: the narrative lay.
Her Breton lais are 12 short narrative poems about love, individuality and chivalry written in Anglo-Norman.
It is intended to be entertaining and morally instructive.
a few mention King Arthur and inspire later Arthurian tales.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Chaucer: The canterbury tales
14th century.
first work in English vernacular.
Collection of stories by 12 pilgrims traveling to the shrine of Saint THomas Becket.
It paints a pic of English society through estates satire.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Dante Alighieri: Divine Comedy
14th cent
its an epic poem.
Tour of heaven and hell.
three books: Inferno (with Virgil as guide), Purgatorio, Paradiso.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Boccaccio: The Decameron
14th century
Plague comes to Florence so 10 young ppl flee to the country and kill time by telling stores.
The 100 tales range from naughty ( a lusty peasant girl is seduced by lusty monk) to tragic (graphic description of effects of the plague)
it paints a pic of 14th century Italy.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD AKA THE MIDDLE AGES
455 AD- 1485 AD
Petrarch
14th century.
“the father of humanism” perfected the sonnet form.
Il Canzoniere, a series of poems in Italian about his unrequited love for Laura, a married woman.
These (stalker) poems became the standard for western love poetry for the next 300 years..
His humanist ideas (study of human thought and action) will inspire the Renaissance.
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Early Tudor Period (1485-1509)
War of the Roses ends in England with Henry Tudor (henry VII) on the throne.
Martin Luthers split with Rome marks the emergence of Protestantism;
Henry VIII creates first Protestant church in England.
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Protestant Reformation (1517-1545)
Martin Luther and early protestants protest Catholic Church and create national Protestant churches

things wall into place one at a time.
you have your health. enjoy it. most important.
imporatnt thing: you’re working towards a direction.

THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Elizabethan Period
1550-1603
Elizabeth saves england from spanish invasion- peacce at home.
this allows for a flowering of culture, i.e., development of the printing press, rise of the middle class, and revival of scholarship, science.
Elizabethan Period
age of idealism, golden age of theater- plays of shakespeare
monarch replaces church as head of state, emphasis on central authority to unify political fragmentation.
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Leonardo Davinci
artist and scientist.
Galileo noted that the earth revolved around the sun.

Renaissance humanists discredit medieval science and engage in experimentation.
themes: universe as an orderly whole where every element has its proper role.
Order among people, church and nation (symmetry, proportion)

THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Martin Luther
leads the reformation
Ninety-five theses (1517) sparked the protestant reformation, an era of religious questioning.
criticized Catholic Church, particularly its sale of “indulgences”- forgiveness for sins.
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Edmund Spenser: The Fairie Queene
1590.
its an allegorical epic poem. it honors queen elizabeth 1 and flatters the Tudor family by connecting it to King Arthur.
One of the longest poems in the English Language.
It created the Spenserian Sonnet ( combines Petrarchan and Shakespearean forms)
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
John Donne
16th Century
English metaphysical poet, satirist, and protestant priest.
He is best known for erotic poetry and metaphysical conceits (comparing something physical to something spiritual. like love)
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
The Flea
Speaker tries to convince a woman to have premarital sex through the metaphor of a flea, in which their blood is already mingled.
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
separated lovers are compared to the legs of a compass.
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Cervantes: Don Quixote
1605
novel that satirizes Spanish chivalric romances as the hero attacks imaginary enemies (windmills)
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
John Milton
1608-1674
Areopagitica
its a prose pamphlet that criticizes censorship.
Paradise Lost
its an epic poem in blank verse about the biblical story of the fall of man.
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Willy Shakespeare
1564-1616
Most famous plays are: hamlet, king lear, macbeth (tragedies);
Richard II, king henry IV (histories)
A midsummer nights dream, much ado about nothing (comedies)
THE RENAISSANCE
THE EARLY MODERN ETA
1485-1660
Shakespeares contemporary playwrights
Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593): Dr. Faustus: play about a man who sells his soul to the devil.
Ben Jonson (1572- 1637) The Comedy of Humors. He also wrote lyric poetry, and was imitated by the Cavalier Poets (Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Thomas Carew) aka “The Tribe of Ben”- wrote smutty poems and were sympathetic to Charles I.
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
Reaction to religious battleground of 16th and 17th centuries. The world would be a better place if people were guided by reason!
Development of natural science.
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
Newton worked out motion of the planets and gravity. = God increasingly unnecessary.

Movement away from imaginative style of the Renaissance and a return to the virtues of classical literature: elegance, correctness, simplicity, restraint, order; Imitation of Homer, Virgil, Horace.

NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
The Restoration
1660-1700
Reestablishment of the house of Tudor through King Charles II.
Period of modern English prose and witty comedies.
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
The Augustan Age/ Neoclassicism
1700-1750
Imitation of Virgil and Horace (writings of both were graceful elevated, concerned with truth.
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
The Age of Johnson
1750-1790
In America, it was called the colonial period.
Transition toward Romanticism
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
Literary Themes
Reason
Logic
Harmony
Stability
Wisdom- rational order in the universe demonstrates God’s design.
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
Philosophers
Rousseau (“noble savage” passion over reason)
Voltaire (reason over passion)
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
18TH CENTURY
Dryden
poetry, pros, criticism, and drama.
Considered the greatest poet of the 17th century and the 3rd greatest playwright, after shakespeare and ben jonson.

Mny of his poems are occasional. they commemorate formal public events.

Dramatic Poesy: 1668
its an essay defending drama against criticism that its not a legit art form

NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790

Alexandre Pope

poetry, prose, criticism and satire.
The Rape of the Lock- satirized materialism of upper classes.
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
Dr. Samuel Johnson: A dictionary of the English Language
1755
called “one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship”
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
James Boswell: Life of Samuel Johnson
1791
the “greatest biography ever written”
it changed the genre with more personal and vivid details about his subject.
NEOCLASSICAL AGE
AKA THE ENLIGHTENMENT
AKA THE AGE OF REASON
1660-1790
Robert Burns
“the Ploughman Poet”
Best known Scottish poet, also wrote folksongs, e.g. Auld Lang Sync.
He wrote in plain, direct language about politics, class inequalities, and the benefits of Scotch whiskey.
His poem Comin’ Through the Rye (1782) inspired the title of J.D Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye”
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
17th-18th centuries
Explorers and colonists wrote about their experiences, both as advertisement for prospective pilgrims and as journalistic therapy, to ward off intense boredom of life in the New World

Rise of Puritanism
humans are “corrupt and prone to evil,” original sin, predestination (Puritans are God’s chosen people))
American Idealism: tradition of preaching

THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
John Smith
leader of the Virginia Colony, soldier, explorer, author.
his books and maps help colonize New World.
The Generall Historic of Virginia (1624)
these are heroic accounts of colonists and native americans, e.g. Pocahontas.
Themes: work ethic, compromise with Indians.
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
John Calvin: Bay Psalm Book (1640)
first book printed in North America, contains psalms the Pilgrim Fathers brought with them to the Massachusetts Bay Colony
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Johathan Edwards
Puritan theologian, wrote about metaphysical theological determinism, inspired thousands of missionaries.
His sermon, Sinners int he Hands of an Angry God (1741, about the horrors of Hell) is a classic of early American literature.
Writings inspire The First Great Awakening, a Christian revitalization movement in the 1740s emphasizing need for salvation through Christ.
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Cotton Mather
Puritan minister, author, most influential minister in Salem Witch Trials.
Pillars of Salt 1681 an execution sermon, early form of true-crime literature. Also write biographies saints and described progress of colonists.
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Thomas Jefferson
He is the 3rd prez.
decl. of indp. 1776
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Thomas Paine
like jefferson, he is also one of the founding fathers.
he is an inventor, author and revolutionary.
he wrote in a new and clear simple style- in order to bring politics to the ppl.
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Rights of Man 1791
written by paine
it defends the french revolution and attacks aristocracy (wisdom to govern cannot be inherited).
it is influenced by locke’s sociall contract and natural rights theories.
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
the age of reason
written by thomas paine.
1793
its a pamphlet.
it challenges religion and the Bible.
it promotes deism ( reason, not religion)

Paine also edited the Pennsylvania Magazine 1775. it helped promote the revolution

THE NEOCLASSICAL AGE
IN AMERICA
18TH CENTURY
Revived interest in classical forms and ideas
( order, simplicity, clarity, and reason) that influenced British thinkers (Dryden, Pope)
moves across the Atlantic to the New World
There is a movement from poetry to non-fiction, from religious idealism to pragmatism- non fiction written in plain language

Politics and religion move away from theism of Jonathan Edwards ( God involved in our everyday lives) to deism of Jefferson and Paine
(God as watchmaker- creates universe then retreats)
common man now master of his own fate.

THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Ben Franklin
he is an inventor and great neoclassical thinker.
POOR RICHARDS ALMANACK 1732-1758
this is Franklins best selling pamphlet.
it is published yearly in the American colonies.
it included weather forecasts, household tips, puzzles.
it is written in the comntemporary armeican vernacular.
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Phillip Freneau
“poet of the american revolution”
his poetry and political writings help inspire american independence
He is an appointed editor (by Jefferson) of the National Gazette (1790’s) a partisan, Democratic- Republican newspaper aimed at attacking the federalists (Hamilton and Washington)
THE COLONIAL PERIOD/ COLONIALISM
(IN AMERICA)
1600-1800
Alexandre Hamilton
Even though he admired Plutarch, he thought classical antiquity, especially Rome, was an inappropriate example for the new US.

” neither the manners nor the genius of Rome are suited to the republic or to the age we live in.
All her maxims and habits were military; her government was constituted for war. Ours is unfit for it; and our situation still less than our Constitution, invites us to attempt a display of unprofitable heroism”

AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Transcendentalism
it began in Far East.
its a movement centered on mysticism and pantheism (God in nature), man’s relation to the natural world.
These ideas are incorporated in the writings of young intellectuals in the Boston area, involved the Unitarian church.
AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Primitivism
it is a sub-branch of Romanticism.
natural or early conditions of society are best.
living close to nature, idea of the noble savage.
reaction to industrial revolution- evil influences of urban society

primitive life becomes the theme of romantic fiction, e.g., melville’s Typee. Children are closer to perfection, e.g Pearl in Scarlet Letter.

AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Literary Themes
Belief that God is in each person and nature, idealization of nature, mysticism, childhood, innocence, the Gothic, exotic settings.
AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin
1852
anti-slavery novel, idealization of childhood.
AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Emerson
essayist, poet, leader of Transcendentalist movement.
He wrote, lectured about: individuality, freedom, mysticism, nature.
SELF RELIANCE (essay, 1841) romantic individualism, avoid the human tendency to conform.
AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Thoreau
author, poet, abolitionist, leading Transcendentalism movement.
he wrote about individual rights, self-education.
WALDEN 1854
social experiment in simple, natural living.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE 1849
motivated by his disgust for slavery, argument that individuals should resist unjust government
AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Poe
poet, one of the earliest short-story writers, inventor of detective fiction.
THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM (short story, 1842)
fear created through sense imagery
THE RAVEN (narrative poem, 1845) stylized language, supernatural atmosphere.
AMERICAN ROMANTIC PERIOD
AKA AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
LATER CALLED TRANSCENDENTALISM
19TH CENTURY
Hawthorne
novelist, short story writer, transcendentalist.
THE SCARLET LETTER
novel 1850
historical setting, themes of sin, guilt , law, repentance.
THE HOUSE OF THE SEVEN GABLES
novel, 1851
Gothic novel set in haunted mansion; themes of guilt, atonement, witchcraft.
REALISM
(AMERICA)
POST-CIVIL WAR
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Versimilitude
Less idealism after civil war (600,000+ fatalities)
Writers wrote about everyday life after the civil war- common many in America’s urban centers
Dark skepticism about future, accuracy of background info and settings
photographic details.
REALISM
(AMERICA)
POST-CIVIL WAR
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Kate Choplin- The Awakening- one of the earliest feminist writers, wrote about marital disharmony, infidelity.
one of the earliest feminist writers, wrote about marital disharmony, infidelity.
REALISM
(AMERICA)
POST-CIVIL WAR
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Walt Whitman
Celebrated the common man
REALISM
(AMERICA)
POST-CIVIL WAR
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Mark Twain
dark comic view of a hypocritical world
REALISM
(AMERICA)
POST-CIVIL WAR
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Emily Dickinson
skepticism of blind faith
REALISM
(AMERICA)
POST-CIVIL WAR
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Stephen Crane- The Red Badge of Courage
William Golding- Lord of the Flies
NATURALISM
(ENGLAND, AMERICA, FRANCE, PRUSSIA, NORWAY)
FIRST HALF OF 20TH CENTURY
Extreme form of realism; denies the supernatural or miraculous; pessimistic.
Humans are victims of instincts, passions, economic, social environment.
Inspired by Darwin
Foreshadows Existentialism
NATURALISM
(England, America, France, Prussia, Norway) First Half of the 20th century
Ernest Hemingway- The Sun Also Rises (1926) decadent “Lost Generation”

Jack London- The call of the Wild (1903) survival of the fittest

Stephen Crane- Maggie, A girl of the Streets (1893)- slums of NY

Steinbeck- Of Mice and Men, The Grapes of Wrath (1937, 1939) the working poor.

Frank Norris- MeTeague (1899) greed, poverty, violence in urban America

Theodore Dreiser- Sister Carrie (1900) urban immortality, corrupted American Dream

EXISTENTIALISM
Post WWII
Literary/philosophical movement.
Human beings are totally free and responsible for their actions.
Novels about free will at work in meaningless or absurd world; heartless bureaucratic systems.
EXISTENTIALISM
Post WWII
Kafka: The Metamorph.
novella 1915- absurdity of bureaucracy

Camu: French absurdist. The Stranger (1942)- first person narrative view of social detached murderer.

Sartre: No Exit
play, 1944. Hell is other people.

MODERNISM
1900-1950
Inspired by WWI.
Movement away from Realism and Naturalism
Rejection of immediate past, tradition, 19th century optimism, Victorian morality.
It experiments with narrative structure (stream of consciousness, multiple points of view)
Concern with sound rather than meaning, how readers will react to text (foreshadows “reader- response” movement)
Characters confront ethical problems, alienation, isolation.
Theme: isolation of the individual.
MODERNISM
1900- 1950.
DYLAN THOMAS
DYLAN THOMAS: Welsh Poet. hybrid forms, Biblical imagery, folklore, dreams/freud.
UNDER MILK WOOD (radio play)
DO NOT GO GENTLE INTO THAT GOOD NIGHT
(villanelle 1951) death is close, unavoidable
MODERNISM
1900- 1950.
VIRGINIA WOOLF
VIRGINIA WOOLF
Bloomsbury Group member
TO THE LIGHTHOUSE 1927 stream of consciousness, no action
MODERNISM 1900-1950
JAMES JOYCE
Irish novelist, poet.
ULYSSES 1922
stream of consciousness, allusions to to classical mythology, varied literary styles
MODERNISM 1900- 1950
IN AMERICA: ROBERT FROST
poetry containing ambiguities, hidden meanings.
MODERNISM 1900-1950
FLANNERY O’CONNOR
Southern Gothic, the grotesque.
MODERNISM 1900-1950
“LOST GENERATION” WRITERS
hemingway, fitzgerald, Faulkner
MODERNISM 1900-1950
“HARLEM RENAISSANCE” WRITERS
Hughes, Dunbar, Ellison
POST MODERNISM
1960’S- PRESENT
Concepts introduced during Modernism are pushed to extreme
Poets and playwrights experiment with fragmented poetry
Rejection of plot and character; meaning itself is illusory

in modernism, fragmentation of human experience is lamented
BUT
in post modernism, fragmentation and incoherence of modern life are made fun of as nonsensical

POST MODERNISM
1960’S TO PRESENT
Thomas Pynchon: The Crying of Lot 49
1966
convoluted plot that depends on understanding of cultural references , including allusion to the beatles, nabokov, the california gold rush
POST MODERNISM
1960’S TO PRESENT
T.S elliot
Nobel prize-winning poet, playwright, social critic.
Considered one of the most important English language poets of the 20th century.
POST MODERNISM
1960’S TO PRESENT
The love song of J. Alfred Prufrock
1915
modernist stream of consciousness poem; internal monologue of a middle-aged male narrator.
themes: regret, weariness, longing, sexual frustration, mortality.
POST MODERNISM
1960’S TO PRESENT
THE WASTE LAND 1922
poem about disillusionment of post-war generation.
contains sudden changes of speaker, location, time.
POST MODERNISM
1960’S TO PRESENT
Samuel Beckett
Irish avant-garde playwright.
Considered one of the last modernists.
POST MODERNISM
1960’S TO PRESENT
Waiting for Godot
1948
absurdist “tragicomedy” play (part of the theatre of the absurdist movement)
derived from philosophies of Camus and Kierkegaard- humans are incapable of finding meaning in the universe

2 characters wait for the arrival of someone named Godot, who never shows.
because of its sparseness, open to many interpretations.
Contains references to religion, psychology, war, philosophy.
Often interpreted as existential in that it seems to question the meaning of human existence and existence of God.

WORLD LIT
1960’S TO PRESENT
increasing acceptance and canonization of non-caucasian writers.
post-colonial literature
WORLD LIT
1960’S TO PRESENT
Sandra Cisneros
Mexican- american writer
THE HOUSE ON MANGO STREET 1984
young adult novel about Latina culture, quest for better life.
WORLD LIT
1960’S TO PRESENT
Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Columbian Pulitzer Prize winner
Magical realism (postmodern, mixes fantastic elements with realism- more realistic than surrealism, which is more concerned with the unconscious
LOVE IN THE TIME OF CHOLERA (1985)
Themes: soltitude, love as illness, aging, hatred, death.
ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF SOLITUDE (1967)
WORLD LIT
1960’S TO PRESENT
Salman Rushdie
British Indian novelist, combines magical realism with historical fiction.
SANATIC VERSES (1988)
Inspired by the life of Muhammad.
Outraged muslims believed it blasphemous and issued a fatwa calling for Rushdie’s death.
WORLD LIT
1960’S TO PRESENT
Gunter Grass
German Nobel Prize- winning novelist, a poet, and artist.
He uses magical realism to create “frolicsome black fabels”
Themes: left-wing German politics, i.e, opposition to reunification of Germany.
THE DANZIG TRILOGY
1959
three works about the rise of Nazism.
ADOLESCENT/YOUNG ADULT LITERATURE
forms are….
-picture books/chapter books/ middle grade and young adult novels

There is strong teen character. it is often narrated in first person.
Exploration of societal issues: family life, conflict, ethical decisions, violence, ecological issues.

Emphasis on promoting sensitivity to cultural, economic, and class diversity.

ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
J.D SALINGER: The Catcher in the Rye
1951.
first person teen anti-hero.
colloquial (sometimes profane) diction
Themes: teen angst, rebellion, identity, sexuality.
ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
E.B White: Charlotte’s Web (1952)
first person female child narrator
themes: compassion, equality
ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
Harper Lee: To Kill a Mockingbird 1960
first-person female child narrator
themes: rape, racial inequality, class, gender roles, integrity.
ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
Madeleine L’Engle: A Wrinkle in Time 1962
science fantasy, Biblical references
themes: good vs. evil, conformity, oppression.
ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
S. E HINTON: The outsiders 1967
themes: gang violence, peer pressure
ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
Judy blume
author of many teen novels
themes: teen sex, divorce, bullying, masturbation, racism
ARE YOU THERE, GOD? IT’S ME, MARGARET 1970
first person female 6th grader deals with religious affiliation, menstruation, jealousy, conformity.
ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
GARY PAULSEN: Hatchet
1987
13 year old boy survives in the wilderness for 52 days
themes: power of rational thinking and optimism, man vs. nature, independence, nature as rejuvenating
ADOL/YOUNG ADULT LIT
Lois Lowry
author of more than 30 children’s books
THE GIVER 1993 dystopian trilogy
NUMBER THE STARS 1987 the Holocaust and Danish Resistance
THE PRE-CLASSICAL PERIOD/ HOMERIC AGE 1400 B.C- 1100 BC
it was a golden age during which the cultural and religious traditions of classical Greece began to take form
The culture and values of this period are embodied in the Homeric poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. This was the time of the Trojan War.
Homer did not live during the ti me period which is named after him. He is believed to have lived 300 years after the Homeric Age.
This period is the setting for Homer’s epic poems, and they are our most important literary source for knowledge of this period.
The ancient Greeks respected Homer’s work and saw him as a source of wisdom and model for herioc conduct.
The Iliad and the Oddy. mark the start of Greek lit.
In them, Homer tells the story of a heroic past.
Both of these works were based on ancient legends, and the stories are told in language that is simple, direct, and eloquent.
The Homeric age ended with the Dorian invasion, around 1100 B.C
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
ANCIENT GREEK DRAMA
ancient greek lit refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century A.D
The greeks invented the epic and lyric forms, and drama.
they produced plays that are still considered masterpieces.
Plays were first performed in Athens for the religious festival of Dionysus.
only a limited number of plays have survived
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
ANCIENT GREEK DRAMA
Tragedy writers
Aeschylus
earliest of the 3 writers.
born 525 BC.
wrote 70-90 plays. only some remain.
Play: Prometheus Bound: a retelling of the legend of the Titan Prometheus, a superhuman who stole fire from heaven, gave it to mankind, and was punished by Zeus. Many of his dramas were arranged as trilogies, groups of three plays on a single theme.
only surviving trilogy: The Orchestra.
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
ANCIENT GREEK DRAMA
Tragedy writers
Sophocles
In 468 Aeschylus was replaced as Greece’s favorite by Sophocles. Antigone is typical of his work: its heroine is a model of female self-sacrifice.
He is probably better known, though, for Oedipus Rex and its sequel, Oedipus at Colonus.
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
ANCIENT GREEK DRAMA
Tragedy writers
Euripides
the third of the great tragic writers
he wrote at least 92 plays, but only 19 of them exist in full.
his tragedies are about real men and women, rather than of idealized figures.
Aristotle called him the most tragic of the poets because his plays were the most moving.
Best known works: Medea, Hippolytus, Orestes, and Electra.
COMEDY: OLD, MIDDLE, AND NEW
comedy arose from a ritual in honor of Dionysus.
only a few works still remain
three great comic poets in the 5th and early 4th century: Cratinus, Eupolis and Aristophenes.
No plays of the first 2 have survived.
11 of approx 40 comedies by Aristophenes survive as the only examples of the genre called Old Comedy
OLD COMEDY
the early stage of Greek comedy/ pop around 5th century BC.
Its known through the works of the playwright Aristophenes. his plays were full of song, dance, slapstick action, sexual jokes, obscenity, abuse, buffoonery and insult.
political and social satire were typical.
the plays often included commentary on political and philosophical topics/ public figures.
The Athenian people themselves are sometimes the objects of criticism. Example: in Aristophanes’s Lysistrata, a group of athenian women try to persuade their husbands to make a truce with Sparta by refusing to have sex with them.
Old comedy plays generally contained farcical scenes and usually ended with a banquet/wedding.
the chorus were often dressed as animals, and the characters wore street clothes or masks with grotesque features.
Parabasis and Debate
these are two elements which are regular structural features of Old Comedy
Parabasis: a long choral passage representing the views of the author. It’s recited and sung in a direct address to the audience while the action of the play is suspended.
In debate, dialogue often takes the form of a debate between 2 characters, in a combination of speech and song
Old comedy has a typical pattern of action: beginning of the play, the main character decides on an outrageous solution to some problem. thats the parabasis.
Opposition to his plan is presented and overcome – the debate. The plan then is put into action and the results are played out.
Aristophenes
Old Comedy is sometimes called Aristophanic comedy , because of its most popular writer
he poked fun at every institution.
The Birds made fun of Athenian democracy
The clouds ridiculed the philosopher Socrates, and Lysistrata criticized war.
Only 11 of his plays have survived.
MIDDLE COMEDY
it replaced Old Comedy in around 400BC.
Athenians lost the Peloponnesian War. They lost interest int he heroes and gods who had been central to Old Comedy.
Middle Comedy- transition from Old comedy, with its political and philosophical commentary mixed with insult of public figures, to New Comedy and its gentle satire of domestic life.
Aristophanes’ last paly: Plutus: its about a blind man who cant tell good from evil until his eyesight is back.. it reflects this transition.
Role of Chorus
one important basis of distinction among old, middle and new comedy is the prominence of the CHORUS.
Old Comedy: the chorus plays an important part of the drama.
Middle Comedy: characterized by decline in the importance of the chorus.
NEW COMEDY
it developed in the late 4th century BC
it focused on family matters, like complications in love relationships. it had no interest in matters of the polis, or political satire. these were curical to old comedy
the only work that has survived entirely from this period is Dyskolus (misanthrope) by Mendander
Menander
he dealt with a narrower focus; not public themes like Aristophenes did.
he depicted fictional characters from every day life. examples: stern fathers, young lovers, and slaves.
his plays influenced later generations. they were adapted by roman poets.
of the 3 stages of athenian comedy, new comedy has had the greatest influence on modern comedy.

The universality of human relationships which formed the subject matter of New Comedy allowed it to translate well- to ROme, and then to renaisance Italy and England and eventually to our stages and tv screens.
Old comedy was tied to the political/social conditions of 5th century Athens. So it could be as easily transplanted.
But the spirit of Old Comedy still survives in modern political cartoons, musical comedies, and comedy skits that satirize political figures and institutions.

GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
Aristotle’s The Poetics (4th century B.C) set out the elements of a tragedy.
For ari, the most important element of tragic drama: experience of catharsis= the arousing of pity and fear so these emotions can be purged in the spectator.
Thus tragedy is defined by its emotional effect on the audience.
According to Aristotle, the ideal plot of a tragedy should contain these elements…
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 1
Unity of Time, place and action.
action extends over no more than a day or two, and occurs in no more than one city and its surrounding countryside.
according to aristotle, the concentration of action with a smaller action within location and short time period produced a stronger emotional response
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 2
Reversal (change of fortune)
the plot is structured to strengthen the emotions of pity/fear.
This occurs through reversal, which can be:
simple- the hero experiences a turn of fortune from happiness to misery or vice versa or
complex- the hero, seeking happiness, brings about his own destruction (ironic reversal)
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 3
Discovery (or recognition)
of someone’s identity or true nature (lear’s children)
of ones own identity or true character (cordelia, edgar, edmund, etc)
of the nature of the gods and the universe (lear’s belief that the gods “kill us for their sport”
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 4
Climax
the ideal climax (turning point) combines ironic reversal and discovery in a single action.
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 5
Tragic Hero
characeristic: of noble blood
– of noble blood: this provides the story with dignity and generates the feeling in the audience that if tragedy can happen to the advantaged, it can happen to anyone. this is how tragedy produces fear.
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 5
Tragic Hero
characeristic: identifiable
the hero should be no better/worse than most people.
this produces “fear” because the hero is imperfect like us, and we can identify with him.
it also produces “pity” because if the hero were totally good, we would be outraged by his fate.
if he were completely evil, we would feel like he had gotten what he deserved.
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 5
Tragic Hero
characeristic
meets his fate because of a tragic flaw
the tragic flaw is not a defect in character (as with shakespeare’s heroes), but an error in judgment of the kind we all make.
this generates “pity” because we do not blame the hero for his tragic fate.
GREEK ARISTOTELIAN TRAGEDY
ELEMENT 6
Catharsis/ purgation
pity is aroused as the hero meets his fate.
fear is aroused since we might meet a similar fate.
we sympathize with the hero and his tragic circumstance and feel pity/fear for him.
we learn a lesson from the story, our pity and fear disappear, and that is cathartic.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
the worlds first democracy was established in 507 b.c
athens had 300k people. one of the largest cities in the world
half: free one third: slaves one sixth: foreigners
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
SOCRATES
470-399
he was the son of a sculptor.
he served with distinction in the athenian army.
married, but fell in love with handsome young men.
short and plump. not well taken care of. loved wine and conversation.
plato called him: “the wisest, and justest, and best of all men whom i have ever known”
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
Socratic method
socrates thought that the soul contained all knowledge.
he believed in reincarnation, and that we lost touch of that knowledge at every birth. So, we aren’t ever learning anything new; we only need to be reminded of what we already know.
He used questions and answers to remind his students of knowledge. he called this maieutics (midwifery) or the socratic method.
he never wrote any of his ideas down. rather, he engaged his students, who were wealthy young men, in endless conversation.
in exchange for teaching, they made sure that he was well taken care of.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
The Dialogs
– these are recorded discussions between plato and socrates.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
Death of Socrates
his unorthodox religious views- that there was just one god behind the variety of greek gods- gave the leading citizens of athens the excuse they needed to put him to death.
they accused him of corrupting the morals of the youth of the city and ordered him to drink hemlock. he did this in the company of his students
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
PLATO
he was about 20 (437bc) he devoted himself to philo and became socrates’ prize student.
after socrates died, he was 🙁
he wandered aimlessly around greece. was kidnapped by pirates.
his friends raised money to ransom him from slavery, but when he was released without payment, they used the money to buy Plato a small property called Academus to start a school.
Academy: the worlds first school was founded in 386
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
The Academy
young men and women studied math, astronomy, law and philosophy.
it was free. ran on donations.
it was the center of greek learning for almost a millenium.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
Philosophy: Ideas and Phenomena
Plato divides reality into two
– the idea (or form) is ultimate reality, permanent, eternal, spiritual. The law of gravity, 1+1=2, e=mc2. this is universal,, true forever and everywhere. It is an idea, unchanging and perfect.
-phenomena: appearance–things as they seem to us. it involves matter, time, and space. They are illusions which decay and die, and are inferior.
he applied this theory to human beings. The body, which is material, mortal- phenomena. The soul is immortal=idea.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
Rationalist
ideas are available through thought.
phenomena is available through our senses.
thought is vastly superior means to the truth.
this makes plato a rationalist
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
Religion and Ethics
Plato identifies the ideal with God, who creates the world out of matter and shapes it according to his ideas.
the world isnt perfect. not bc gods ideas are flawed, but because the raw materials werent perfect.
because of this belief, the early church retroactively made plato an honorary christian, even though he died 3 and a half centuries before Christ
plato: soul with always choose to do good if it recognizes what is good.
someone who does something bad doesnt need punishment. they need education
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
PLATONIC LOVE
he believed in 3 levels of plezha
1. physical including sex.
2. aesthetic. such as admiring beauty
3. highest is ideal pleasure. pleasures of the mind
^ that is platonic love. intellectual love for another person untainted by physical involvement.
ANCINET GREEK PHILO
The republic
his greatest work.
he compares elements of society to the three levels of pleasure.
peasants: foundation of society. producing goods. satisfying the appetite.
warriors: spirit and courage of the society.
philo king: guides society with reason.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
Aristotle apeh
384-322. he was plato’s student… but he disagreed with many of his points.
he was scientist+ philosopher.
fascinated with nature. he classified the plants and animals of Greece.
he was into studying animals. their anatomies and their behavior in the wild.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
De anima
aristotle invented modern logic and wrote the first book on psychology. it was called Para Psyche. that is greek for “about the mind or soul”… latin called De Anima.
the book foreshadows many of the ideas that are fundamental to psychology today, such as the laws of association.
ANCIENT GREEK PHILO
Desire and Reason
so aristotle foreshadowed many of the psych concepts that are popular now.
libido: “in all animals… it is the most natural function to beget another being similar to itself”
THE AUGUSTAN AGE
Age of Roman emperor Augustus 31 BC-AD 41.
at this time, art and literature flourisehd.
also used to label the 18th century period during which writers imitated the style/themes of classical texts
THE AUGUSTAN AGE
Latin poet
VIRGIL
Publius Vergilius Maro 70 BC- 19 BC
author of the Aeneid- epic poem of twelve books that became the Roman Empires natiaonl epic
THE AUGUSTAN AGE
VIRGIL
Composition of the Aeneid
first six books of the epic are modeled on Homer’s Odyssey

Aeneas ( a trojan war hero) escapes the ruins of his native Troy, after it is defeated by the Greeks.
Aeneas leads the surviving Trojans to make a new home in Italy.
Voyage… storm forces Aeneid to the coast of Carthage
He falls in love with Dido, the queen.
Jupiter reminds him of his duty. he leaves Carthage. Dido kills herself and curses Aeneas
Aeneas reaches Italy. he consults a sibyl. Sibyl takes him thru the underworld and reveals his destiny to him.
Aeneas= reborn as the creator of Imperial Rome.

composition of the aeneid
Last six books= Roman equivalent of the Iliad.
He marries Lavina. She’s the daughter of King Latinus. Lavina was already promised to a king named Turnus.
He battles and kills Turnus. He ignores his plea for mercy.

He exemplifies the virtue of pietas ( roughly translated as piety)- duty to one’s gods, family and homeland.
He struggles bw what he wants to do as a man and what doing what he must as a virtuous hero..
struggle makes him= more realistic character than the heroes of older poems, like Odysseus.

Divine Comedy- Dante made Virgil his guide to Hell in Purgatory.
Virgil is still considered one of the greatest of the Latin poets, and the Aeneid is a staple of most classical studies programs.

THE AUGUSTAN AGE
HORACE
65 Bc- nov 27, 8 bc
considered to be one of the greatest Latin poets.
he’s a lyrical poet and satirist.
his latin phrases like seize the day are still popular today.
themes in his odes: love, frienship, the simple life, and the art of poetry.
HORACE
Ars Poetica
17-13 BC
He discusses decorum ( appropriate language, style and subject matter for writers) with directness, informality and humor.
he says: writer needs to have a natural ability and training.
ars poetica: greatly influenced western poetry. so did a lot of his work.
much of his work was copied throughout the middle ages and quoted by early christian writers, including st. jerome
THE AUGUSTAN AGE
OVID
Metamorphoses
– epic poem in 15 books.
– describes the creation of the world in terms of greek and roman mythology.
– it greatly influenced medieval poetry
-TRANSFORMATION is his theme
-its popular in myths
-metamorphoses begins with prometheus and ends transformation of the spirit of julius ceasar into a star
– its often called a mock- epic.
– written in dactylic hexameter meter.
– the form of the heroic and epic poems both of antiquity ( e.g, the Iliad and Odyssey and the Aeneid
– the poem begins with the ritual “invocation of the muse”. instead of recounting the deeds of a human hero, it is episodic and pays only minor attention to the epics themes: great deeds, national glory, and religious observance. rather than those, his theme is love. personal/ or love personified as Amor (cupid)
– he ridicules the gods (apollo especially).
– shows how irrational love can be.
– few of the stories are sacrilegous as Ovid elevates humans and makes the gods and their desires and conquests objects of low humor.
THE MIDDLE AGES
The Canterbury Tales
– 24 stories are collected in a frame story.
– written by Geoffrey Chaucer. around 1400.
– the frame: 30 ppl travel to caterbury (england). they are visiting the shrine of saint thomas becket at caterbury cathedral.
-pilgrims tell stories to each other while they travel
– acc to the general prologue, Chaucer intended that each pilgrim should tell 2 tales on the way to canterbury and 2 on the way back. thats 120 total.
– he never finished though.
-the tales were passed down in the form of handwritten manuscripts.
– written in middle english
THE MIDDLE AGES
The Canterbury Tales
– themes: courtly love, gender roles, religious corruption, greed.
– genres vary: sermon, fable, romance.
– poetic form also varies by tale.
– he uses a variety of rhyme schemes and metrical patterns. there are two prose tales.
– some tales are serious/ some humorous.
– all of them describe the habits and imperfections of human nature.
– class difference is evident in the tales
– in much of medieval europe, the “estates of the realm” divided society into nobility, clergy and commoners. this division is one of the themes of the work.
– some of the tales are are linked by theme.
– some of htem are told in response to others, as an argument.
– one of the most important aspects of it: was written in vernacular (spoken language of a region)
– Until the 17th century, most scholarly works were written in Latin.
The Canterbury Tales
– The general prologue
– The knights tale
– The Millers tale
– The merchants tale….
Renaissance Poetry
1485- 1600
Ben Johnson
1572-1637
if willie shakey had never lived, playwright, actor and cavalier Poet Ben Jonson would probably be regarded as the master dramatist of h is age.
Renaissance Poetry
1485- 1600
The Cavalier Poets
they were called this because most were either members of the court of King Charles I or his supporters during the Civil War (1642-1651) between the Royalists (Cavaliers) and Parliamentarians

The metaphysical poets ( eg. John Donne, Andrew Marvell) who wrote about love and religion and relied heavily on conceits (exaggerated metaphors/similies), the cavaliers wrote lighter and more secular poetry.
In 1616, Johnson published Works. its a collection of plays/poems.
Controversial title. it had been a title that was traditionally reserved for “intellectual” subjects, like history/theology.
johnson believed that plays were serious works of art.

Renaissance Poetry
1485- 1600
Sons of Ben
Although Johnson was arrogant and blunt, many younger writers admired and imitated his style.
they called themselves, Cavalier Poets and Sons of Ben.
Renaissance Poetry
1485- 1600
Robert Herrick
1561-1674
– a cavalier poet.
– member of johnsons circle of young admirers.
– his loyalty to the king made him = write several poems about charles 1, including “To the King”
– was a priest. many of his poems refer to biblical characters and events.
– he foreshadowed the neoclassical age. he imitated the classical antiquity. example: he would address poem to beautiful women.
– was obsessed with the classical era. so much so that he practiced roman rituals and customs in his own house.
carpe diem poem
one written on the common roman theme “seize the day”.
horace wrote: let us eat and drankk, for tomorrow we die.
Renaissance Poetry
1485- 1600
Andrew Marvell 1621-1678
– metaphysical poet.
– well educated in the greek and latin classics.
– assistant to john milton and a member of parliament
– known for his lyric poems.
– attacked his politcal opponents with satirical poems.
– his poems were filled with wit.
his poems epitomize Renaissance lyric poetry: deep meanings under light surfaces.
NEOCLASSICAL PERIOD
18th century was called= augustan age, the neoclassical age, and the Age of reason
Augustan: period after the restoration era to the death of alexander pope 1700-1750.
why its called augustan: comes from the imitation of the original augustan writers, virgil and horace, by many 18th century writers
Popular genres of the period: mock epic and translation, and the literature is distinguished by the goals of harmony and precision.
Tight verse and heroic couplets were popular in poetry.
major poets were Alexander Pope and John Dryden.
In prose essays and satire were the predominant forms, and the prose writers of the age were jonathan swift and joseph addison.
MAJOR WORKS OF NEOCLASSICISM
neoclassical striving for order, clarity, and decorum.
– works of dryden, pope, swift and john gay demonstrate this.
-dyden’s an essay of dramatic poesy (1668), and pope’s essay on criticism ( 1711) became the basis for modern english literary criticism.
– both argue that the model for writing should be “nature” as interpreted by the classical writers: a rational moral order in the universe.
MAJOR WORKS OF NEOCLASSICISM
The Rape of the Lock 1712
Pope’s satire about the battle between the sexes tells the story of belinda, a flirtatious and superficial young woman who is preoccupied with exotic cosmetics/beauty stuff.
she becomes hysterical when a man steals a lock of her hair.
by giving this minor event a mock heroic treatment, pope criticizes the pettiness of high-society.
MAJOR WORKS OF NEOCLASSICISM
Gulliver’s Travels 1726
its not a mock epic, but satire is also the force behind jonathan swift’s novel.
its four parts describe the different journeys of lemuel gulliver; to liliput, where tiny people act pomoously; to a land of giants who laugh at tales of the greatness of england; and to a land where horses are civilized and men (yahoos) behave like beasts.
swifts understated irony inspired a type of satire in which outrageous statements are given in a straight faced manner.
MAJOR WORKS OF NEOCLASSICISM
Robinson Crusoe 1719
daniel defoe’s novel had the most lasting lit influence of any work written during the augustan age.
many literary historians consider robinson crusoe to be the first successful english novel and credit Defoe with inspiring realistic fiction and the “rise of the novel”
he didnt follow in the tradition of satire in the augustan age, but was instead influenced by the early narratives by women, e.g. Aphra Behn, Mary Delariviere Manley, and Jane Barker. These female writers created an audience for the novel, which allowed Defoe to succeed with both Rob C and Moll Flanders.
VOLTAIRE, THE “VOICE OF REASON”
real name: francois marie arouet 1694 – 1778
born in paris in 1694
he was one of france’s greatest writers and philo’s.
was a critic of religious intolerance and persecution
went to a jesuit school in paris. dropped out at 17.
wrote witty poems. made him a favorite in society circles.
imprisoned in the Bastille for 11 months BC he wrote a satire of the french gov’t
wrote “oedipe” in prison. his first theatrical success.
1726. exiled and moved to england BC he insulted a powerful nobleman. he read the phil of Locke/ideas of scientist Newton, and studied the natural sciences.
he was impressed by englands religious tolerance and became interested int he philo of rationalism. it was popular at the time.
came back to pari in 1729. wrote book praising english customs and institutions… but ppl thought he was criticizing the french gov’t.
forced to leave paris 1734.
he produced many books, plays and other publications.
HE WAS A VOICE OF REASON IN ALL HIS BOOKS!!
ROMANTICISM
was very popular.
began in the last decades of the 18th century.
it CHANGED poetry, prose, drama, painting, music (opera) and ballet.
it gave voice to the fears and fantasies of the people.
ROMANTICISM
Where did it come from?
can be traced to the mid 18th century interest in folklore which arose in germany and the belief that works of imagination could = those of educated poets and composers
education and aristocracy were favored in the 17 and 18th centuries. but a new taste arose for the simplicity/naturalness of those who were common and uneducated.
ROMANTICISM
new respect for willy
interest in the folk arts helped make him popular.
wasnt college educated. his works wasn’t entirely “respectable”
his works broke the rules of ancient greek/roman dramas. academic critics didn’t like that.
play shouldnt mix comedy and tragedy, have multiple plots, subplots, settings, and carry the story out over months/years of dramatic time..
he violated aristotles theory of the unity of time and place.
to the romantics, he represented folk poetry, and he validated their belief in untutored creativity.
THE GOTHIC ROMANCE
in the romantic age, readers sought escapism in adventures which terrified heroes and heroines fought monsters and mysterious forces.

Horace Walpole’s Castle of Oltranto 1764… set in a haunted castle. one of the first gothic romances.
this formula was popularized by writers like ann radcliffe, g lewis, eugene sue and poe.

Gothic romance–> modern horror and romance novels.
– some pop ones: Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, Frankestein, which foreshadowed modern science fiction

ELEMENTS OF ROMANTICISM
Medievalism
medieval culture had been disdained in the early 18th century. gothic novel EMBRACED it.
Augustan age celebrated+imitated the ancient Greeks and Romans.
The Romantics celebrated the wilder aspects of euro. history= the middle ages.
12 and 14th centuries influence- stained glass art of cathedrals/ tales of robin hood and his merry men/ king arthur and his knights of the round table.
Creatures of medieval tales (like beowulf’s Grendel) came back to the 19th century Romantic Lit… fairies/witches…angels in the writing.
ELEMENTS OF ROMANTICISM
Emotion
voltaire and enlightenment writers avoided the irrational, sentimental and superstitious, Gothic romance writers EMRBACED it.
terror
created other-wordly setting and irrational events to horrify and amaze.
proponents of roman. argued that readers could be morally uplifted through a greater sensitivity to feelings. cultivation of empathy for the suffering of others (charles dickens) might lead to social change!
ELEMENTS OF ROMANTICISM
Exoticism
readers of 19th century wanted unfamiliar/distant.
romantics created images of distant/ exotic places
spain- a fave for french romantics
it reinforced STEREOTYPES.
natives depicted as lazy/ not able to govern themselves
women depicted as more sexually desirable than the women at home.
ELEMENTS OF ROMANTICISM
Religion
some were drawn to religious imagery.
some were attracted to arthurian legends. they didnt believe in either of them though.
romantics borrowed biblical themes.
neoclassical predecessors borrowed classical mythology.
ELEMENTS OF ROMANTICISM
individualism
before 18th century, europeans focused on surviving war and plague.
industrialization/capitalism came to europe–> new industrialists built large fortunes and upward mobility destabilized the idea of aristocracy.
individuality!!! important!! reflected in literature.
literature stressed personal achievement and choice!
ELEMENTS OF ROMANTICISM
Nature
industrial rev killing nature 🙁
europeans began to romanticize it.
they were attracted to it BC they were no longer part of it
ELEMENTS OF ROMANTICISM
Victorianism
victorian age- seen as a later stage of romanticism
prudish attitudes associated with queen v’s reign.
passionate and erotic aspects of romanticism continued though.
REALISM
a reaction against romanticism
it began in france in the 18th century
became a worldwide movement in the early 20th century.
REALISM
Balzac
1799-1850
he is considered the papik of literary realism
portrays france in a lot of detail. from the lowest classes to the highest aristocrats (the human comedy)
the title was an allusion to dante’s divine comedy
feature of his work: long detailed descriptions.
his plots were unrealistic. filled with sensational crimes, unbelievable conspiracies crimes, and improbably coincidences.
romantic work, but with realistic detail.
REALISM
Flaubert
1857.
he produced Madame Bovary. woman cheats on her doctor husband. shocks readers and led to an obscenity trial.
19th century readers had read about adultery in romantic novels. but it had never been treated in such a detailed and realistic way.
she was unpunished for her sins.
his lawyer successfully argued that bovary’s death made the novel into a moral tale.
the novel broke the conventions of romanticism. BUT it also criticizes them.
he portrays emma ad deluded for trying to model her life after romantic fiction. the novel becomes an anti romantic manifesto!
REALISM
Naturalism and Zola
the term invented by zola.
created intricately detailed settings
didnt use long descriptions.
focused on ordinary ppl. they acted immorally.
novels stresses the importance of heredity and environment on character.
– leads to a sense of doom. most of the novels end in final catastrophe.
REALISM
influence of realism
realism and naturalism had a lasting effect on fiction. especially in America.
late 19th/early 20th century american writers who wrote novels of realism/and or naturalism: twain, william dean howells, kate choplin
REALISM
a hazard of new fortunes
arose from the romantic tradition as a fantastic narrative, settled into the more realistic mode
the novel is generally based in our own world, with everyday characters doing everyday things.
MODERNISM
its the movement in visual arts, music, lit and drama which REJECTED victorian standards of how art should be made/what it should mean.

“high modernism”- 1910- 1930, the major figures of modernist literature redefined what fiction could be

founders of 20th century modernism
woolf/ ezra pound/ marcel proust

CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERNISM
there is an emphasis on HOW writing takes place. for example- stream of consciousness writing
it moves away from objective omniscient third person narrators. rather, it has fixed points of clear-cut moral positions.
genre distinctions are blurred.
focus on fragmented forms, discontinued narratives and random collages.
the piece calls attn to its own status as a production.
POSTMODERNISM
follows most the same ideas as modernism.
replaces the traditional genre rules with fragmentation, ambiguity and self consciousness.
its more playful. it emphasizes parody and irony.
modernism presents a fragmented world as something tragic. but postmodernism recognizes that, but celebrates it.

it acknowledges the instability of institutions and in language itself. it favors mini narratives or concepts rather than large scale/global concepts. they r situational/temporary. they dont make claims to universality/truth/logic/stability.

DECONSTRUCTION
refers the application of post modern ideas of ciriticism to a text.
it attempts to uncover the assumptions of a text
POSTMODERNISM TODAY
1941… rough estimate for the beginning of postmodernism.

end of the second world, the beginning of the cold war or the beginning of the civil rights movement 1955-1968.

POSTMODERNISM TODAY
cyberfunk
those who link postmodernism with computers refer to postmodern fiction as cyberfunk.
POSTMODERNISM TODAY
subgenres
electronic lit
hypertext fiction
neo existential lit
POST MODERNISM TODAY
neo existentialism
the term was first used to explain the shift away from the focus on an individuals struggle with existence to an entire society’s struggle to make meaning of its existence
the texts describe a new kind of angst, confusion and then surrender after accepting the inevitable.

some focused on post modern elements of neo-ex, creating stream of consciousness narratives that depict confusion, angst, and bitter resignation to a blind and uncaring corporate world. fight club.

POST MODERNISM TODAY
post colonial lit
lit written by ppl living in countries formerly colonized by other nations.
hegemony- dominance thru ideas and culture

neo-imperialism
– relationships like that bw the us and many latin american countries which, while nominally independent, have economies dominated by american business interests…
chinua achebe and wole soyinka- wrote about the corruption of native-born dictators and officials within their indie homeland.
postcolonial scholars explain this corruption as a by product of colonialism.

A troublesome term
pg 76 i dgaf
ACHEBE
nigera
1930
well known african author.
thigns fall apart 1958. colonial impact on lgbo culture
lgbo soceity unable to adapt to the arrival of the british, who impose a cash economy and christanity on them.
man of the ppl- describes an unnamed post colonial african country. deals with the problems of political representation in a corrupt nation

anthills of the savannah 1987. deals with the problem of military regimes in contemporary africa.

EMECHETA
1944.
married a student when 16. moved to london w him
left him. university of london. sociology degree.
began writing when marriage ended.
most of her fiction is autobiographical.
in the ditch and second class citizeen- adah marries a student. francis. she struggles in marriage. leaves him. discovers her intelligence and character.
most critically acclaimed work: the rape of shavi 1983. encounter between africa and the west.
europeans rape a girl. ayoko. husband dies of syphillis.
SOYINKA
first african to win the noble prize in lit 1986.
poet, playwright.
early poetry resulted from his imprisonment during the nigerian civil war. the man died. 1972.
most known for his plays; contains myth and imagery and narratives.
gordimer
1923
novelist. critic short story writer. won nobel rpize in lit 1991.
was raised in a segregated town outsdie of johannesburg.
focused on the human tensions that result from apartheid.
praised for authentic portrayals of black african culture and uses precise details to evoke the landscape of south africa and the complex problems of a racially polarized society.
helped found the congress of south african writers. three of herbooks banned in south africa.
a guest of honor 1970
the conservationist 1974
her short stories portray common people dealing with apartheid in their daily lives.
MAJOR CARIBBEAN AUTHORS
Alvarez
her writing bridges latin and american cultures
writes about the male chauvinism of hispanic families, the role of women under dictatorships and the misogyny in political structures
MAJOR CARIB AUTHORS
Arenas
cuba in 1943.
his fiction includes the autobiography “before night falls” and “farewell to the sea”
books are known for their blasphemy and criticism of the cuban government
first novel- Singing from the Well 1967… banned from publication in cuba
was imprisoned and banished from cuba in 1980.
lived in ny. died from aids 10 yrs later.
novels have been published throughout the world and have won numerous literary awards.
MAJOR CARIB AUTHORS
Brathwaite
major proponent of the use of “nation language”… the kind of english spoken by the people who were brought to the carib, not the offiicial english, but the language of slaves and laborers, the servants who were brought in
Absurdist theatre
dramatic works of the mid 20th century.
beckett, ionesco, jean genet.
wrote about the absurdity and meaninglessness of the human condition
allegory
a form of symbolism in which people, things, or actions represent an abstract idea.
example: woman holding a torch is an allegory for the idea of liberty
antiquity
the period of history from around 3000 bc to the fall of the roman empire around 476 a.d
followed by the middle ages
bildungsroman
a novel involving the moral, spiritual, intellectual, and/or emotional education of a young hero/heroine
black comedy
also referred to as “tragic farce”
the use of the morbid and the absurd for darkly comic purposes.
characteristic of the genre: tone of anger and bitterness, grotesque and morbid situations
blank verse
lines of unrhymed verse, usually iambic pentameter
bloomsbury group
group pf thinkers, artists, and writers living in the district of london, known as bloomsbury, near the british musuem in the 1920’s and 1930’s.
the group began meeting in 1907 and were a powerful force in british literacy and intellectual life.
woolf, john maynard keynes, clive bell.
Canto
each one of the sections or chapters in a poetic epic like dantes divine comedy
canto literally means song
classicism
style, attitudes, and ideas in art and lit inspired by, and including, the culture of classical antiquity (ancient greece and rome).
the values of classicism are harmony, proportion, clarity, elegance, simplicity, restraint, ideality and universality.
contrapasso
literally means counter=step.
idea that sin= punishment
couplet
2 lines of verse, of equal length
dactyl
a poetic foot or unit consisting of one stressed or long syllable followed by two unstressed or short syllables
dactylic hexameter
a poetic meter common in epic poetry
six dactyls in a line of poetry
deus ex machina
latin for god from a machine
forced or artificial intervention or event that resolves a difficult situation in a literary work.
dramatic monologue
a literary, usually verse composition in which a speaker reveals his character in a first person speech, often about a critical situation, to a reader, audience, or imagined audience
epic
long narrative poem using elevated language
tells the deeds of legendary/historical hero
often contains complex adventure sequences and underlying philos. moral message about human actions, choices, consequences, fate.
existentialism
philos. movement of the 19th and 20th centuries stressing individual freedom and human choice.
based on the idea that human beings shape their own existence through choices and actions
sartre 1905-1980
foot
unit of rhythm in verse defined by a certain number and order of stressed and unstressed syllables.
example: the iamb (one unstressed followed by a stressed syllable
free verse
term referring to the use of verse which is not metrical or whose meter is irregular
harlem renaissance
surge of creativity among afr americans in all fields of art from 1920-1930 around harlem.
also called the new negro movement
stressed the unique culture of afri am’s and their heritage
langston hughes
james weldon johnson
hubris
excessive pride
may take the form of a boastful comparison of self to the gods and often resulting in harsh punishment
humanism
a ren. philosophical and educational movement emphasizing the importance and dignity of the human existence
characterized by: seeking know. and under. all matters pertaining to earthly, secular life, interest in the educ. philo’s of classical antiquity, the development of human virtue and potential, and reform of culture to improve human life.
originated in italy in the 14th century in the work of dante, fransisco petrarch, and giovanni bocc.
iamb
a group (also called foot) of 2 syllables where the first is unstressed and the second stressed
to be’ or not’ to be’
iambic pentameter
a verse line consist. of 5 iambic feet
10 syllables
Lai (lay)
from med. french lit, a narrative poem written in octosyllabic couplets and rhymed stanzas of 6-16 lines
deals with tales of adventure and romance
OR any lyric poem (often about luv) with metrical variety and designed to be sung.
of centic origin, used by northern french poets and storytellers such as marie de france around 12th cent.
magical realism
a modern latin american narrative tech charac. by the mixing of the real and the fantastic
columbian writer gabriel garcia marquez
metaphys. poets
school of 17th cent poets
– john donne, andrew marvell…
interested in the analysis of emotions/combining of the secular and the sacred
they were particularly interested in the abstract and the particular
poetry; features a complex perception of life, concise language, wit and directness
meter
in poetry, a rhythm established by a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
the basic unit of meter is called the foot.
middle ages
the period of western history from the fall of the roman empire 476 a.d, until the fall of constantinople to the turks 1453 ad
its also known as the medieval period and the “dark ages”
characterized by feudalism (peasantry ruled by war lords) and dominance of the catholic church.
preceded by antiquity and followed by the renaissance
modernism
refers to art/lit/music of late 19th and 20th century.
charac. by protest against industrialized, burec. nature of the modern world.
breaking away from rules and conventions
experiments with form and style.
interest in the internal life of characters
movements assoc with modernism: surrealism, existentialism, formalism, symbolism, dadaism, expressionism, impressionism.
naturalism
an extreme form of realism
emphasis on the depiction of social, political and economic struggles and contains scientific accuracy in the rep of graphic, and at times unplesant aspects of human existence
emile zola stephen crane frank norris
neoclassicism
sytles/ideas in europ. art and lit during the 17tha nd 18th cent’s inspired by classical antiquity; a reaction against the enthusiasm of the renaissance
reverence for order, reason and rules.
neoclassicism is closely assoc. with the ideas of the enlightenment.
Noh Drama
a highly type of japan. play influenced by zen buddhism.
it involves formal stylized gestures.
noh= talent/skill.
noh plays are poetic dramas involv. music/song/dance/wooden masks
often involves ghosts or emphasize spirituality
a pine tree painted on the wall is a feature of all noh stages
parody
the imitation of a work or an authors style for the purposes of ridicule
pastoral
portraying the idyylic lives of shepherds in lit.
contrasts a peaceful, humble and productive life with the destruction, pillaging, and arrogant pride often depicted in genres such as the epic.
personification
type of fig lang in which a thing/idea is rep has having human charac’s
post colonialism
cult/intell/pol/lit movement of the 20th and 21th centur’s characterized by the rep and analysis of the historical experiences of the victims.. both indiv’ and nations.. of colonial power.
tries to under. the emergence of colonial power and its lasting consequences.
postmodernism
cultural/intellectual trend of the 20th and 21st centuries
its charact. by emphasis on the ideas of the fragmentation of meaning and coexistence, of different cultures and perspectives.
tries to deal with the despair of modernism with playfulness, irony, and black humor.
prose
ordinary language, resembling the natural flow of speech.
the opposite of poetry
quatrain
a stanza of 4 lines
realism
style in art and lit that emphasizes verisimilitude( the accur. rep of life and social reality)
preferred subjects: the normal, everyday, humble, practical.
an objective, detached perspective by the author.
renaissance
rom about 1453 fall of constantinople to the turks to about 1650.
renewed interest in antiquity (greece and rome)
surge of intellectual/artistic activity
emphasis on the self, exploration, and empirical methods.
followed by the enlightenment.
romanticism
movement of the 18th and 19th centuries in lit, philosophy, religion, art, and politics.
reaction against neoclassicism
values: freedom from restraints and rules, individualism, creativity, revolutionary political ideas, imagination over reason, reverence for nature, interest in the middle ages, mystery, transcendence, universality.
satire
a work that blends a critical attitude with humor and wit.
often intended to improve human institutions or humanity
similie
a type of figurative lang which compares two things using like or as
socialist realism
lit movement begun in russia in 1932 to promote socialist ideals (seeking social and economic equality, satisfaction of the needs of all, and opportunities for education and the development of human potentialities)
works of socialist realism faithfully rep life
they unmask ideological deceptions
and they reveal people’s actual conditions of existence (social, political, and economic)
stream of consciousness
a literary tech involving expression through a flow of words, images, and ideas similar to the unorganized flow of the mind.
the term was origin. coined by william james. referring to the flow of inner mental phenomena.
woolf, to the lighthouse
surrealism
movement in art that focuses on dreams, unconscious processes, the irrational and juxtaposition of incongruous images following a logic of free association.
orign. in france in the 1920’s as a development of dadaism
rep artists: andre breton and dali.
tercet
a stanza or group of three poetic lines
tragedy
type of play charact. by the depiction of misfortunes, disasters, and/or the death of the main protagonists.
main pro is often afflicted by a “tragic flaw” which leads to tragic outcomes.
the tragedies of aeschylus (525-456 bc)
sophocles 496-406 bc
euripides 480-406 bc
these were popular as a part of the dramatic competitions during the dionysia, or festival in honor of dionysus
trimeter
a verse line of three feet
trochee
a poetic foot consisting of one stressed or long syllable , followed by an unstressed or short syllable
the opposite of an iamb
trope
a word or expression used in a figurative sense, for example, a metaphor.

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