Music 6

Wagner had an opera house built specifically for the performance of his own pears in the German town of ..
Bayreuth

Which pair are operatic compositions by Wagner?
Tannhauser and The Ring

In Music, the early twentieth century was a time of …
Revolt and Change

All of the following composers worked in the early years of the twentieth century EXCEPT
Hector Berlioz

The glissando, a technique widely used in the twentieth century is
A rapid slide up or down a scale

The most famous riot in music history occurred in Paris in 1913 at the first performance of …
Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring

Of the following, who was not a major influence on the breakdown of realism in the early 20th century?
Copland

A fourth chord is …
A chord in which the tones are a fourth apart, instead of a third.

Striking a group of adjacent keys on a piano with the fist or forearm with result in a …
Tone cluster

When two different triads such as that built on E and that built on A, are played at the same time, the technique is known as …
A polychord

Rhythm in music of the 20th century tends to be either very asymmetrical or very symmetrical.
Ostinato

A scale made up of just the black keys within the octave on the piano keyboard is called a …. scale
Pentatonic

Impressionism in music is characterized by …
a stress on tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity

The most impressionist composer was …
Claude Debussy

Impressionist painting and symbolist poetry as artistic movements originated in ..
France

Of the following, who was known as a creator of orchestral versions of his own and others’ great piano works?
Ravel

The immense success of Stravinsky’s 1910 ballet … the first original work he composed for Diaghilev’s Ballet Russe, established him as a leading young composer
The Firebird

After studying law at the University of St. Petersburg, Stravinsky at the age of twenty one began to study composition privately with …
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

Expressionism is an art concerned with …
Social protest and nightmarish states of mind

Schoenberg’s personality inspired love and loyalty among his students, including Alban Berg and …
Anton Webern

Some of Berg’s pieces call for an unusual style of vocal performance halfway between speaking and singing called …
Sprechstimme

The ordering of twelve chromatic tones in a twelve-tone composition is called …
All of the above

In the opera Wozzeck, the title character is …
Soldier

Wozzeck drowns while searching for …
a Knife

Poetic Meter

Meter
A recurring pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in lines of a set length.

Rhythm
Adherence and deviation from standard meter. A poem’s musicality.

Foot
Usually made up of two syllables and sometimes three.

Iamb (Iambic)
A foot made up of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.

Trochee (Trochaic)
A foot made up of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable.

Spondee (Spondaic)
A foot made up of two stressed syllables.

Anapest (Anapestic)
A foot made up of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable.

Dactyl (Dactylic)
A foot made up of a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables.

Pyrrhic
A foot made up of two unstressed syllables.

Monometer
One foot

Dimeter
Two feet

Trimeter
Three feet

Tetrameter
Four feet

Pentameter
Five feet

Hexameter
Six feet

Heptameter
Seven feet

Octameter
Eight feet

Catalexis (catalectic)
An incomplete foot at the end of a line.

Acatalexis (acatalectic)
A complete foot at the end of a line.

AP Poetry Terms

alliteration
the repetition of identical or similar consonant sounds, usually at the beginning of words

allusion
a reference in a work of literature to a historical or literary event, person, place or passage outside of the work

antithesis
a figure of speech characterized by strongly contrasting words, clauses, sentences, or ideas, as in “Man proposes; God disposes.” Antithesis is a balancing of one term against another for emphasis or stylistic effectiveness.

apostrophe
a figure of speech in which someone (usually, but not always absent), some abstract quality, or a nonexistent personage is directly addressed as though present

assonance
the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds

ballad meter
a four-line stanza rhymed abcd with four feet in lines one and three and three feet in lines two and four

blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter

cacophony
a harsh, unpleasant combination of sounds or tones.

caesura
a pause, usually near the middle of a line of verse, usually indicated by the sense of the line, and often greater than the normal pause

conceit
an ingenious and fanciful notion or conception, usually expressed through an elaborate analogy, and pointing to a striking parallel between two seemingly dissimilar things.

consonance
the repetition of similar consonant sounds in a group of words

couplet
a two-line stanza, usually with end-rhymes the same

devices of sound
the techniques of deploying the sound of words

diction
choice of words especially with regard to correctness, formality, clearness, or effectiveness

didactic poem
a poem which is intended primarily to teach a lesson

dramatic poem
a poem which employs a dramatic form or some element or elements of dramatic techniques as a means of achieveing poetic ends

elegy
a sustained and formal poem setting forth the poet’s meditations upon death or another solemn theme

end-stopped
a line with a pause at the end

enjambment
the continuation of the sense and grammatical construction from one line of poetry to the next

extended metaphor
an implied analogy, or comparison, which is carried throughout a stanza or an entire poem.

euphony
a style in which combinations of words pleasant to the ear predominate.

eye rhyme
rhyme that appears correct from spelling, but is half-rhyme or slant rhyme from the pronunciation

feminine rhyme
a rhyme of two syllables, one stressed and one unstressed, as “waken” and “forsaken” and “audition” and “rendition”

figurative language
writing that uses figures of speech (as opposed to literal language) such as metaphor, irony, and simile. Figurative language uses words to mean something other than their literal meaning.

free verse
poetry which is not written in a traditional meter but is still rhythmical

heroic couplet
two end-stopped iambic pentameter lines rhymed aa, bb, cc with the thought usually completed in the two-line unit

hyperbole
a deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration

imagery
the images of a literary work; the sensory details of a work; the figurative language of a work.

irony
the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning, or between what might be expected and what actually occurs

internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a line, rather than at the end

lyric poem
any short poem that presents a single speaker who expresses thoughts and feelings

masculine rhyme
rhyme that falls on the stressed and concluding syllables of the rhyme-words

metaphor
a figurative use of language in which a comparison is expressed without the use of a comparative term

meter
the repetition of a regular rhythmic unit in a line of poetry. each unit is known as a foot

metonymy
a figure of speech which is characterized by the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself

mixed metaphors
the mingling of another metaphor with another immediately following with which the first is incongruous

narrative poem
a non-dramatic poem which tells a story or presents a narrative, whether simple or complex, long or short

octave
an eight-line stanza

onomatopoeia
the use of words whose sound suggests their meaning (such as “hiss,” “buzz,” or “zip”)

oxymoron
a form of paradox that combines a pair of contrary terms into a single expression

paradox
a situation or action or feeling that appears to be contradictory but on inspection turns out to be true or at least to make sense.

parallelism
any structure which brings together parallel elements, be these nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, or larger structures to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in importance.

paraphrase
a restatement of an idea in such a way as to retain the meaning while changing the diction and form

personification
a kind of metaphor that give inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics

poetic foot
a group of syllables in verse usually consisting of one accented syllable and one or two unaccented syllables associated with it

pun
a play on words that are identical or similar in sounds but have sharply diverse meanings

quatrain
a four-line stanza with any combination of rhymes

refrain
a group of words forming a phrase or sentence and consisting of one or more lines repeated at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza

rhyme
close similarity or identity between accented syllables occupying corresponding positions in two or more lines of verse

rhyme royal
a seven-line stanza of iambic pentameter rhymes ababbcc, used by Chaucer and other medieval poets

rhythm
the recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables

sarcasm
a type of irony in which a person appears to be praising something but is actually insulting it. Its purpose is to injure or to hurt.

satire
writing that seeks to arouse a reader’s disapproval of an object by ridicule

scansion
a system for describing the meter of a poem by identifying the number and the type(s) of feet per line

sestet
a six-line stanza

simile
a directly expressed comparison; a figure of speech comparing two objects, usually with “like,” “as,” or “than.”

sonnet
normally a fourtenn-line iambic pentameter poem

stanza
usually a repeated grouping of three or more lines with the same meter and rhyme scheme

rhetorical strategy
the management of language for a specific effect

structure
the arrangement of materials within a work; the relationships of the parts of a work to the whole; the logical divisions of a work

style
the mode of expression in language; the characteristic manner of expressions of an author

symbol
something that is simultaneously itself and a sign of something else

synecdoche
a form of metaphor which in mentioning a part signifies the whole

syntax
the order of and arrangement of words in a sentence; a sentence’s grammatical structure, length, and type.

tercet
a stanza of three lines in which each line ends with the same rhyme

terza rhyme
a three-line stanza rhymes aba, bcb, cdc, etc.

theme
the main though expressed by a work

tone
the manner in which an author expressed his or her attitude

understatement
the opposite of hyperbole; represents something less than it really is

villanelle
a nineteen-line poem divided into five tercets and a final quatrain

American Lit 1

Why did John Winthrop write “A Model of Christian Charity”?
To establish the tenets of a Christian community

What three reasons did Puritans have for spending time writing?
to instruct, guide: the sermon, with three parts: a text, an exposition, and an application.
to record an examine their public experiment: histories, journals, biographies.
to examine their own spiritual life and eal with “familiar” matters: diaries, autobiographies, poetry

In “A Model of Christian Charity” what does Winthrop mean when he says, “…some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in subjection.”?
He believes that God ordained the class system.

What were two common themes found in early Puritan writings?
idealism and pragmaticism

With which religion was John Winthrop associated?
Puritan

What are the 5 Basic Puritan beliefs?
Total Depravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistible Grace, Perseverance of the “saints”

What are three things that Puritans did not believe in?
religious tolerance; authoritarian political structure; their intent to found a new nation

What was the function of the Puritan writer?
To transform a mysterious God; to make Him more relevant to the universe; to glorify God.

What did Puritans see as the importance of the sermon?
a persuasive tool, a way for the speaker/writer to demonstrate his rightful claim of authority

With which religion was William Bradford associated?
Separatist

Edward Taylor’s work as a poet was generally unknown during his lifetime. Only some parts of his poems and letters that he had written to, or for, Boston friends were published during his lifetime. In what year, or time period, did Taylor’s work become public knowledge and published?
Taylor’s works were discovered in the late 1930’s and published in 1930.

With whom did Edward Taylor have a long-running controversy regarding the Lord’s Supper and who should be allowed to participate?
Solomon Stoddard

In her poem “The Prologue”, Anne Bradstreet ends the work with what tone in Line 46?
A well hidden, but sarcastic tone

Edward Taylor writes in what dialect?
His boyhood dialect

In her poem “The Prologue”, Anne Bradstreet references the muse of epic poetry, Calliope, in Line 33. What was her purpose in doing this?
Bradstreet referenced Calliope to prove her point that not only men can write poetry. This reference was very sarcastic.

Without her knowledge, who had Anne Bradstreet’s manuscript collection of her poetry printed? Where was the collection printed and in what year?
Bradstreet’s brother-in-law, John Woodbridge, had her manuscript published in London in 1650.

Edward Taylor’s best verse is to be found in a series of poems entitled what?
Preparatory Meditations

Who or what does Anne Bradstreet reference when in Lines 19 and 20 of “The Prologue” she states, “Nor can I, like that fluent sweet tongued Greek, Who lisped at first, in future times speak plain.” ?
Bradstreet is referencing Demosthenes, a Greek orator who overcame a speech impediment by placing pebbles in his mouth and talking to the sea.

Although Anne Bradstreet is a Puritan writer, she is the first in a long line of American poets who took their consolation not from theology, but from what?
the “wonderous works”

What proved to Anne Bradstreet finally that God exists?
that God exists was not proven to Bradstreet through her reading, but the evidence of her own eyes

Taylor’s poem, “God’s Determinations” is written in the tradition of what style literature?
written as a medieval debate

What is The Tenth Muse?
The Tenth Muse was the first published volume of poems written by a resident in the New World and was widely read.

Which author travelled to England and Scotland, delivered some three hundred sermons and collected nearly twelve hundred pounds only to return from England to find his family sickly and living in extreme poverty due to his absence? The author thought he had made arrangements with a trusted mentor to care for his family while he worked to raise money for a charity school.
Samson Occom

Which author is viewed as either the last great Puritan writer, or the first American Romantic author?
Jonathan Edwards

The revitalization of spirituality and religious enthusiasm that swept through the American colonies from 1734 until around 1750 is referred to as what and which author was an instrumental leader of this religious fervor?
This period of new religious fervor has been called the “Great Awakening”, and in its early years Jonathan Edwards was a stand out leader of the movement.

Which author stated, “I grew convinc’d that Truth, Sincerity, and Integrity in Dealings between Man and Man, were of the utmost Importance to the Felicity of Life, and I form’d written Resolutions to practice them ever while I lived.”?
Benjamin Franklin

Most of the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment believed that after God had created the universe, He left it strictly alone. What is this theory called?
Deism

The Age of Reason/Age of Enlightenment was a period in history when philosophers emphasized the use of what as the best method of learning truth?
The use of reason was the best method of learning truth.

The period of history known as The Age of Reason, or Age of Enlightenment, began in the __________ and lasted until the late ____________.
1600’s – 1700’s

Franklin formed a debating society that he called what?
The Junto

The leaders of the Age of Reason relied heavily on the scientific method, with its emphasis on experimentation and careful observation. The period produced many important advances in such fields as what?
anatomy, astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and physics

A Short Narrative of My Life was written by Samson Occom in 1768 and was recovered from library archieves and available in a published edition only since what year?
1982

In what style was Benjamin Franklin’s The Autobiography written?
urbane, humorous, and self-aware

According to Deism, God regulated nature so that it proceeds mechanically. Future events are therefore fully predictable on the basis of earlier events. These philosophers liked to compare the universe, or think of the universe as a what?
As a clock that keeps perfect time because it was designed by a superior clockmaker.

What characterizes most of Jonathan Edwards’ sermons?
Most of Edwards’ sermons are characterized by a desire to make salvation emotionally and aesthetically appealing to his listeners.

What institution of higher learning was established and built using the money earned by Samson Occom?
Dartmouth College

Which author is the grandson of the famous Reverend Solomon Stoddard?
Jonathan Edwards

Which author was a Mohegan?
Samson Occom

What three things did Jonathan Edwards’ writing convey, or articulate?
(1) a complex synthesis of traditional Puritan piety
(2) Enlightenment beliefs in the potential of the human will
(3) an almost mystical appreciation of natural beauty

Which author died on July 4, 1826, exactly 50 years to the day that the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress?
Thomas Jefferson

What three things may “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine strike the reader as?
a verbal revolution, an affirmation of plain speech and simple language, as well as the principles of the rebellion against England

According to Paine, what is “society”?
everything constructive and good that people join together to accomplish

Thomas Paine was born in England to a ___________ father and an ________ mother.
Quaker and Anglican

What are “The Federalist Papers”?
a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution

In what publication do you find the first line, “These are the times that try men’s souls”?
The American Crisis, No. 1

According to Paine, what was the definition of “government”?
an institution whose sole purpose is to protect us from our own vices

What was “The American Crisis No. 1” and what was its intent?
the first in a series of essays meant to boost morale and exhort the revolution

Which author’s autobiography included two draft versions of “The Declaration of Independence”?
Thomas Jefferson

As a child, Thomas Paine experienced what and why?
Injustice because of the social caste system

It is stated that Phillis Wheatley was a remarkably intelligent child, that she came to know the Bible well, and that three English poets touched here deeply and exerted a strong influence on her verse. Who are the three English poets that so deeply impacted Phillis Wheatley’s life and therefore, her written works?
The three English poets were Milton, Pope, and Gray

What did Phillis Wheatley do in 1778 that changed the course of her life?
She married John Peters, an intelligent but irresponsible free black man who eventually abandoned her

A present day reconsideration shows Wheatley to be a bold and canny spokesperson for what two issues?
her faith and her politics

Incorporating the vocabulary and ideals of the Enlightenment–particularly the belief that sentiment linked all human beings and thus argued for the university of human rights–for whom did Equiano speak?
Equiano spoke for the countless disenfranchised and exploited workers who’s labor fueled the new mercantilism

Where was Olaudah Equiano born?
Equiano was born in what is present day Nigeria.

Phillis Wheatley discussed the issues of slavery with Samson Occom.
True

What do scholars agree upon about Equiano and his origin?
Scholars agree that Equiano himself left conflicting evidence about his origins.

How old was Phillis Wheatley when her book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral was published in London?
Phillis Wheatley was either nineteen or twenty years old when her book was published in London.

Where was Phillis Wheatley born?
Wheatley was born in Africa, probably in present-day Senegal or Gambia.

With the publication of Wheatley’s Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., has argued, “Wheatley launched two traditions at once.” What were the two traditions?
The black American literary tradition and the black woman’s literary tradition

When Murray “unmasked” Mr. Vigilius, why did she claim that she had chosed to hide her identity?
Murray explained that she had hidden her identity and her sex because she feared if it were common knowledge that she was a woman her writing would not be taken seriously.

Murray wrote didactic essays. What is a didactic essay?
Didactic essays are written for the purpose of instruction, or to teach.

What three points does Murray argue in her essay “On the Equality of the Sexes”?
at present, women are weaker in judgment than men

if women were educated like men, then their minds would be identical

that educated women would not abandon their traditional female duties

What did Murray find her most important subject to be?
the independent female mind

Were Murray’s essays found in The Gleaner ever reprinted?
The Gleaner was reissued in 1992.

What pseudonym did Judith Sargent Murray use?
Mr. Vigilius

Week/Module 4

Verse
This term has two major meanings. It refers to any single line of poetry or any composition written in separate lines of more or less regular rhythm, in contrast to prose.

Paraphrase
The restatement in one’s own words of what one understands a poem to say or suggest. A paraphrase is similar to a summary, although not as brief or simple.

Summary
A brief condensation of the main idea or plot of a work. A summary is similar to a paraphrase but less detailed

Subject
The main topic of a work, whatever the work is about.

Theme
A generally recurring subject or idea noticeably evident in a literary work. Not all subjects in a work can be considered themes, only the central one.

Lyric poem
A short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. Often written in the first person, it traditionally has a songlike immediacy and emotional force.

Narrative poem
A poem that ells a story. Ballads and epics are two common forms of narrative poetry

Dramatic monologue
A poem written as a speech made by a character at some decisive moment. The speaker is usually addressing a silent listener.

Didactic poem
A poem intended to teach a moral lesson or impart a body of knowledge.

Tone
The mood or manner of expression in a literary work, which conveys an attitude toward the work’s subject, which may be playful, sarcastic, ironic, sad, solemn, or any other possible attitude. Tone helps to establish the reader’s relationship to the characters or ideas presented in the work.

Satiric poetry
Poetry that blends criticism with humor to convey a message, usually through the use of irony and a tone of detached amusement, withering contempt, and implied superiority.

Persona
Latin for mask. A fictitious character created by an author to be the speaker of a literary work.

Irony
In language, a discrepancy between what is said and what is meant. In life, a discrepancy between what is expected and what occurs.

Verbal irony
A mode of expression in which the speaker or writer says the opposite of what is really meant, such as saying Great story in response to a boring, pointless anecdote.

Sarcasm
A style of bitter irony intended to hurt or mock its target.

Dramatic irony
A situation in which the larger implications of character’s words, actions, or situation are unrealized by that character but seen by the author and the reader or audience

Cosmic irony
The contrast between a character’s position or aspiration and the treatment he or she receives at the hands of a seemingly hostile fate; also called irony of fate.

Denotation
The literal, dictionary meaning of a word

Connotation
An association or additional meaning that word, image or phrase may carry, apart from its literal denotation or dictionary definition. A word may pick up connotations from the uses to which it has been put in the past.

Image
A word or series of words that refers to any sensory experience (usually sight – visual imagery, although also sound – auditory imagery, smell, touch – tactile imagery, or taste). An image is a direct or literal recreation of physical experience and adds immediacy to literary language.

Imagery
The collective set of images in a poem or other literary work.

Haiku
A Japanese verse form that has three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables. Traditional haiku is often serious and spiritual in tone, relying mostly on imagery, and usually set (often by implication instead of direct statement) in one of the four seasons. Modern haiku in English often ignore strict syllable count and may have a more playful, worldly tone.

Simile
A comparison of two things, indicated by some connective, usually like, as, or than, or a verb such as resembles. A simile usually compares two things that initially seem unlike but are shown to have a significant resemblance. “Cool as a cucumber” and “My love is like a red, red rose” are examples of similes.

Metaphor
A statement that one thing is something else, which in a literal sense, it is not. A metaphor creates a close association between the two entities and underscores some important similarity between them. An example of metaphor is “Richard is a pig.”

Implied metaphor
A metaphor that uses neither connectives nor the verb to be. If we say “John crowed over his victory,” we imply metaphorically that John is a rooster but do not say so specifically.

Mixed metaphor
The (usually unintentional) combining of two or more incompatible metaphors, resulting in ridiculousness or nonsense. For example “Mary was such a tower of strength that she breezed her way through all the work” (towers do not breeze).

Personification
The endowing of a thing, an animal, or an abstract term with human characteristics. Personification dramatizes the nonhuman world in tangibly human terms.

Apostrophe
A direct address to someone or something. In an apostrophe, a speaker may address an inanimate object, a dead or absent person, an abstract thing, or a spirit.

Overstatement
Also called hyperbole. Exaggeration used to emphasize a point.

Understatement
An ironic figure of speech that deliberately describes something in a way that is less that the case.

Metonymy
Figure of speech in which that name of a thing is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. For instance, we might say “The White House decided” when we mean that the president did.

Synecdoche
The use of a significant part of a thing to stand for the whole of it, or vice versa. Saying “wheels” for “car” is an example of synecdoche.

Paradox
A statement that at first strikes one as self-contradictory, but that on reflection reveals some deeper sense. Paradox is often achieved by a play on words.

Symbol
A person, place, or thing in a narrative that suggests meanings beyond its literal sense. Symbol is related to allegory, but it works more complexly. A symbol bears multiple suggestions and associations. It is unique to the work, not common to a culture.

Allegory
A description – often a narrative – in which the literal events (person, place, thing) consistently point to a parallel sequence of ideas, values, or other recognizable abstractions. An allegory has two levels of meaning: a literal level that tells a surface story and a symbolic level in which the abstractions unfold.

Symbolic act
An action whose significance goes well beyond its literal meaning. In literature, symbolic acts often involve a primal or unconscious ritual element such as rebirth, purification, forgiveness, vengeance, or initiation.

Conventional symbols
Symbols that, because of their frequent use, have acquired a standard significance. They may range from complex metaphysical images such as those of Christian saints in Gothic art to social customs such as a young bride in a white dress. They are conventional symbols because they carry recognizable meanings and suggestions.

Stanza
From the Italian, meaning “stopping-place” or “room.” A recurring pattern of two or more lines of verse, poetry’s equivalent to the paragraph in prose. the stanza is the basic or ganizational principle of most formal poetry.

Rime scheme
Any recurrent pattern of rime within an individual poem. A rime scheme is usually described by using lowercase letters to represent each end rime – a for the first rime, b for the second, and son – in the order in which the rimed words occur. The rime scheme of a stanza of common meter, for example, would be notated abab.

Refrain
A word, phrase, line or stanza repeated at intervals in a song or poem. The repeated chorus of a song is a refrain.

Ballad
Traditionally, a song that tells a story. Ballads are characteristically compressed, dramatic, and objective in their narrative style.

Folk ballads
Anonymous narrative songs, usually in ballad meter. They were originally created for oral performance, often resulting in many versions of a single ballad.

Ballad stanza
The most common pattern for a ballad, consisting of four lines rimed abcb, in which the first and third lines have four metrical feet (usually eight syllables) and the second and fourth lines have three feet (usually six syllables). Common meter, often used in hymns, is a variation rimed abab.

Literary ballad
A ballad not meant for singing, written by a sophisticated poet for educated readers, rather than arising from the anonymous oral tradition.

Blues
A type of folk music originally developed by African Americans in the South, often about some pain or loss. Blues lyrics traditionally consist of three-line stanzas in which two identical lines are followed by a third, riming line. The influence of the blues is fundamental in virtually all styles of contemporary pop – jazz, rap, rock, gospel, country, and rhythm and blues.

Rap
A popular style of music that emerged in the 1980’s in which lyrics are spoken or chanted over a steady beat, usually sampled or prerecorded. Rap lyrics are almost always rimed and very rhythmic – syncopating a heavy metrical beat in a manner similar to jazz.

Order in which images appear in a poem is called?
Image structure

Robert Frost is the author of?
The Road not Taken; Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

What is the primary method the speaker uses in this poem?

There is no frigate like a book
To take us lands away,
nor any coursers like a page
of prancing poetry.
This traverse may the poorest take
without oppress of toll
how frugal is the chariot
that bears a human soul!

comparison

The theme of this poem involves one’s innocence?
Spring

Emily Dickinson is the author of?
There is no Frigate like a book; It sifts from Leaden Sieves;

The images of the first, second, and third stanzas of this poem create and impression of early autumn, mid-autumn, and late autumn respectively.
“To Autumn” by John Keats

Irony is the major principle of interpretation in “The Chimney Sweeper.”
True

Saying wheels for car is an example of synecdoche.
True

Another name for overstatement is hyperbole
True

Defines poetry as “the synthesis of hyacinths and biscuits.”
Carl Sandburg

Defines poetry as “the music of the soul.”
Voltarie

A trope is a kind of metrical foot.
False

Imagery is the collective set of images in a poem or other literary work
True

The speaker of this poem asks God to “o’erthrow,” reclaim him as His own and “marry” him.
John Donne: Batter my heart, three personed God, for you

Overstatement
Pleasant-sounding
Understatement
Simile
Cacophony
Hyperbole
Euphony
Litotes
Cool as a cucumber
Opposite of euphony

Order in which ideas are expressed in a poem is
Rational structure

Poetry Vocabulary

the study of the structure of poetry
prosody

how poetry is built, how it’s put together
structure

the most condensed and concetrated form of literature
poetry

movement
rhythm

stressed or unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
meter

a more or less regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
metrical pattern

basic unit of measurement in a line of poetry
foot

a foot that has one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllables
iamb

a foot that has one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
trochee

two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable
anapest

one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
dactyl

a foot consisting of two stressed syllables
spondee

a line of poetry with one foot
monometer

a line of poetry with two feet
dimeter

a line of poetry with three feet
trimeter

a line of poetry with four feet
tetrameter

a line of poetry with five feet
pentameter

a line of poetry with six feet
hexameter

a line of poetry with seven feet
heptameter

a line of poetry with eight feet
octameter

metrical analysis or determining what the meter or metrical pattern
scansion

end with same sound
rhyme

begin with the same sound
alliteration

repitition of vowel sounds
assonance

repitition of consonant sounds
consonance

rhymes at the ends of lines
end rhyme

rhymes within the lines
internal rhyme

words that look the same but do not sound the same
eye-rhyme

when you assign letters to lines of poetry with end rhyme
rhyme scheme

a stanza made up of two lines
couplet

a stanza made up of three lines
triplet

a stanza made up of four lines of poetry
quatrain

exaggeration
hyperbole

opposite of hyperbole
understatement

a word or phrase that describes one thing in terms of another
figurative language

a combination of contradictory terms
oxymoron

makes a comparison between unlike things using words such as “like” or “as” (not literal)
simile

makes a comparison between unlike things wherein one becomes the other (not literal)
metaphor

assigning a human characteristic to an inanimate object
personification

poem that expresses emotion
lyric poem

a poem that tells a story
narrative poem

unrhymed, iambic pentameter
blank verse

lines vary in length, no fixed rhythmical pattern, no rhyme scheme
free verse

at the end of a line, there is no mark at the end of the line to indicate a pause or stop and thought continues through the next line
enjambment

a poem where its shape suggests its meaning
concrete

a word whose sound expresses its meaning
onomatopoeia

Basic Poetry Terms

speaker
the narrator of a poem

line
a group of words on one line of a poem

stanza
a group of lines arranged together

rhythm
can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain. The “music” of the poem.

meter
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables

Free Verse Poetry
no repeating patterns of syllables, no rhyme, conversational, modern

end rhyme
a word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line

internal rhyme
a word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line

approximate rhyme
imperfect rhyme, close rhyme, near rhyme

onomatopoeia
words that imitate the sound they name

alliteration
consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words

consonance
a type of alliteration in which the repeated consonant sounds are anywhere in the words

assonance
a type of alliteration in which repeated vowel sounds are in a line or lines of poetry

refrain
a sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem

simile
a comparison of two things using like, as, than, or resembles

metaphor
a direct comparison of two unlike things

hyperbole
exageration often used for emphasis

litotes
understatement for effect

idiom
an expression in which the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression

personification
when human qualities or characteristics are given to non-humans such as objects or animals.

symbolism
a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself but also represents something else

allusion
a reference in a literary work to something famous

imagery
language that appeals to the senses and “paints a word picture,”

lyric poem
a short poem in first person point of view that expresses an emotion, idea, or describes a scene

ballad
a song or songlike poem that rhymes

Shakespearean Sonnet
a fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme

narrative poem
a poem that tells a story

concrete poem
a poem in which the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem

tone
the feeling or mood the poem gives

theme
the main idea of a poem, story, or piece of art

List of Poetic Devices

Alliteration
The repetition of initial consonant sounds

Assonance
The repetition of vowel sounds

Imagery
Words or phrases that appeal to any sense or any combination of senses

Metaphor
A comparison between two objects with the intent of giving clearer meaning to one of them. Often forms of the “to be” verb are used, such as “is” or “was”, to make the comparison

Meter
The recurrence of a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables

Onomatopoeia
The use of words which imitate sound

Personification
A figure of speech which endows animals, ideas, or inanimate objects with human traits or abilities

Point-of-view
The author’s point-of-view concentrates on the vantage point of the speaker, or “teller”, of the story or poem (1st person: the speaker is a character in the story or poem and tells it from his/her perspective, 3rd person limited: the speaker is not part of the story, but tells about the other characters but limits information about what one character sees and feels, 3rd person omniscient: the speaker is not part of the story, but is able to “know” and describe what all characters are thinking)

Repetition
The repeating words, phrases, lines, or stanzas

Rhyme
The similarity of ending sounds existing between two words

Simile
A comparison between two objects using a specific word or comparison such as “like”, “as”, or “than”

Stanza
A grouping of two or more lines of a poem in terms of length, metrical form, or rhyme scheme

Ancient Music

A collection of hymns from India
Samaveda

A French cave that has red dots on the ceiling of the cave to note these special acoustic spots in the cave.
Pech Merle

The addition of a second voice, sung in tandem, to Gregorian chants.
Organum

Signs written above the chant words to indicate where the voices should rise and where they should fall in tone.
Neumes

A written discourse on the performing arts, including music, dance, stage performances, and so on
Natya Shastra

Included poems that were accompanied by instrumental music, often from a lyre
Lyric poetry

Refers to a set of fragmentary relics as well as a nearly complete example of notated music from around 1400 BCE.
Hurrian song

Lived from 1300 to 1377. Both a poet and composer, he wrote over one hundred songs and was one of the first to write polyphonic music
Guillaume de Machaut

Often sung by male choirs and the music is still used for worship today
Gregorian chants

Found in Slovenia, it appears to date to about 50,000 years ago
Divje Babe flute

Polyphonic music; was similar to an organum, but the speed of the song was quicker
Conductus

Also known as plainsong; a type of monophonic sacred music
Chants

A musical form that became popular in the late medieval period, it featured multiple voices with a complex rhythm
Ars Nova

The use of archaeological techniques in the study of music.
Archaeomusicology

Parts of Speech & Poetry

simile
a comparison using like or as ex:

metaphor
a figure of speech in which something is described as though it were something else, sometimes uses “is” or “are.”

personification
Giving human or lifelike qualities to a nonhuman or something that is not alive

conjunction
joins words or groups of words, ex: or, but, and, because, until, for

adjective
a word that describes a noun.

interjection
a word that expresses emotion

idiom
An expression that cannot be understood if taken literally (ex- “Get your head out of the clouds”).

exaggeration
making to seem more important than it really is

understatement
A figure of speech in which a writer deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is.

pronoun
a word that takes the place of a noun; ex: she, he, us, they, me, ours

verbs
action words

preposition
A word or phrase that shows the relationship of a noun to another noun (at, by, in, to, from, with )

alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words ex: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

adverb
a word that describes a verb or adjective ex: fast, here, often, happily

poetry
sounds and words put together in a meaningful way