Archetype test, Poetry terms, writing terms, literary terms

Archetypes
a recurring pattern of character, symbol, and situation

3 types of archetypes
character, symbolic, situational

5 characteristics of archetypes
universal, recurring, not knowable, connects us to our past, characteristics

Water/Desert
symbolic

Quest
situational

Circle of Life
symbolic

Battle between good and evil
situational

Light/darkness
symbolic

Mentor
helps guide the main character throughout the story

Describe the fall
goes from a higher to lower level

5 characteristics of a hero
romantic, tragic, comic, epic, flaw

How do morning & spring represent in the death/rebirth archetype?
morning/spring-birth, rebirth

The Initiation
situational archetypes

The hero
character archetypes

heaven-hell
symbolic

the task
situational

the mentors
character

Supernatural intervention
symbolic

the journey
situational

father-son conflict
character

evil figure vs good heart
character

Haven vs wilderness
symbolic

the scapegoat
character

battle between good and evil
situational a.

fire vs ice
symbolic

the woman figure
character

natural vs mechanical world
situational

loyal retainers
character

innate wisdom vs educational stupidity
symbolic

the hunting group of companions
character

the ritual
situational

the un-healable wound
situational

the young man from the provinces
character

supernatural intervention
symbolic

the circle of life
symbolic

the outcast
character

the initiates
character

the mentor-pupil relationship
character

The devil figure
character

the creature of nightmare
character

magic weapon
symbolic

alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words—She sells seashells…

allusion
reference to another person, place or literary work

aphorism
a pithy saying that holds truth–if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it

analogy
comparison between unlike things

archetype
patterns of symbol, character, and situation found in lterature

characterization
means by which a writer reveals characters

connotation
emotional meaning of a word

dialect
regional forms of language

diction
writer’s choice of words

figurative language
writing not meant to be taken literally

flashback
an interruption in plot to relate an earlier event

foreshadowing
use of clues to suggest future events

hyperbole
deliberate exaggeration

imagery
language that appeals to the 5 senses

metaphor
a comparison without using like or as

motif
a recurring theme, subject or idea

onomatopoeia
the use of words that imitate sounds

oxymoron
a figure of speech consisting of two apparently contradictory terms

personification
attributing human characteristics to nonhuman objects

point of view
perspective from which a story is told

pun
play on words

rhetorical shift
a change in tone or attitude

setting
time and place of action

simile
comparison using like or as

symbol
something that represents something else

denotation
dictionary definition of a word

mood
feeling created by the author

suspense
feeling of curiosity or uncertainty

theme
central message of a work

tone
writer’s attitude toward the subject

essay
multi-paragraph paper that expresses an opinion

concluding paragraph
restates the thesis in a different way, gives the paper purpose

thesis
states the purpose of the paper

introduction
first paragraph that includes the thesis

topic sentence
states the purpose of a paragraph

concluding sentence
last sentence that acts as a transition, mostly opinion

body paragraph
develops the support for the thesis

pre-writing
organizing examples and support for position

concrete detail
sentence that offers facts, examples, and details

commentary
sentence that is opinion, insight, and analysis

speaker
the narrator of a poem

line
a group of words on one line of a poem

stanza
a group of lines arranged together

couplet
a two line stanza

rhythm
can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain

meter
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables

Free Verse Poetry
no repeating patterns of syllables, no rhyme, conversational, modern

end rhyme
a word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line

internal rhyme
a word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line

approximate rhyme
imperfect rhyme, close rhyme, near rhyme

rhyme scheme
a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always); this pattern is shown with letters

onomatopoeia
words that imitate the sound they name

alliteration
consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words

consonance
a type of alliteration in which the repeated consonant sounds are anywhere in the words

assonance
a type of alliteration in which repeated vowel sounds are in a line or lines of poetry

refrain
a sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem

simile
a comparison of two things using like, as, than, or resembles

metaphor
a direct comparison of two unlike things

extended metaphor
a metaphor that goes several lines or possibly the entire length of the work

implied metaphor
a comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated

hyperbole
exageration often used for emphasis

litotes
understatement for effect

idiom
an expression in which the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression

personification
an object, something natural, or an animal is given life-like qualities

symbolism
a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents something else

allusion
a reference in a literary work to something famous

imagery
language that appeals to the senses

lyric poem
a short poem in first person point of view that expresses an emotion, idea, or describes a scene

ballad
a song or songlike poem that rhymes

Shakespearean Sonnet
a fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme

narrative poem
a poem that tells a story

concrete poem
a poem in which the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem

Poetry, Part I

The final two lines of Shakespeare’s “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?” promises the subject of his sonnet
immortality.

Which of the following terms is defined as, “words that sound alike”?
Rhyme.

Which line /best/ illustrates alliteration?
And sings a solitary song.

Which of the following is an example of a simile?
Her stomach rumbled like an approaching train.

Blank verse is always
unrhymed.

Which of these lines contains a metaphor?
She offered him a hundred-watt smile.

“Foam brightens like the dogwood now” is an example of
a simile.

Which of the following terms is the Greek word for “measure”?
Meter.

The line “I wandered lonely as a cloud” is an example of a
simile.

Similes and metaphors are both considered types of
figurative language.

Which statement about free verse is /correct/?
It can be either rhymed or unrhymed.

Repeating the last letter or sound in a word is a technique known as
consonance.

Which statement is an example of personification?
The wind whispered her name.

What’s the main difference between a metaphor and a simile?
A simile uses “like” or “as” to make comparisons and a metaphor doesn’t.

Which of the following is an example of alliteration?
Foolish flaws and personal preferences.

When a poet wishes to use figurative language, he or she will use words that are
both connotative and denotative.

A poem that has 14 lines and a specific rhyme scheme is called
a sonnet.

A definition of formal poetry is verse that
sticks to certain traditional patterns.

The phrase “the middle of May” is an example of
alliteration.

/Personification/ means to give human traits to
nonhuman objects.

If this was helpful, feel free to donate to my paypal:
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1920s Vocabulary

Bootlegger
a person who smuggled alcoholic beverages into the United States during prohibition

Speakeasy
a place where alcoholic drinks were sold and consumed illegally during Prohibition

Fundamentalism
a Protestant religious movement grounded in the belief that all the stories and details in the Bible are literally true

Flapper
one of the free-thinking young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the 1920s

Double Standard
a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women

Charles Lindbergh
an American aviator, engineer, and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational development.

George Gershwin
famous concert music composer who merged traditional elements with American jazz, thus creating a new sound that was identifiably American

Georgia O’Keeffe
famous painter who produced intensely colored canvases that captured the grandeur of New York; American artist that painted flowers and landscapes during the great depression.

Sinclair Lewis
the first American to win a Nobel Prize in literature, among the era’s most outspoken critics. Author of the novel “Babbit”, which used that main character of George F. Babbit to ridicule Americans for their conformity and materialism

F. Scott Fitzgerald
coined the term “Jazz Age” to describe the 1920s. Author of “This Side of Paradise” and “The Great Gatsby,” which revealed the negative side of the period’s gaiety and freedom. They portrayed wealthy and attractive people as leading imperiled lives in gilded surroundings.

Edna St. Vincent Millay
wrote poems celebrating youth and a life of independence and freedom from traditional constraints; was reowned for her traditional poetic and her bohemian living. she infused conventioanl forms with a fervent contemporary spirit. in 1923 she was awarded the pulitzer prize for poetry.

Ernest Hemingway
so soured by American culture that they chose to settle in Europe; wounded in World War I, became the best-known expatriate author. Wrote “The Sun Also Rises” and “A Farewell to Arms”; criticized the glorification of war. He also introduced a tough, simplified style of writing that set a new literary standard, using sentences a Time reporter compared to “round stones polished by rain and wind.”

Zora Neale Hurston
struggled to the top of African-American literary society by hard work, flamboyance and grit; , wrote Their Eyes Were Watching God; 20th century African-American writer; folklorist during the Harlem Renaissance

James Weldon Johnson
poet, lawyer and NAACP executive secretary- the organization fought for legislation to protect African-American rights. Spear-headed the fight against lynching. Author of “God’s Trombones” and “Black Manhattan”

Marcus Garvey
an immigrant from Jamaica, believed that African Americans should build a separate society. His radical message of black pride aroused the hopes of many. Founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), moved it to NYC. Claimed he had a million followers by the mid-1920s. Appealed to African Americans with a combination of spellbinding oratory, mass meetings, parades, and a message of pride

Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African-American artistic creativity during the 1920s, centered in the Harlem community of New York City

Claude McKay
a novelist, poet, and Jamaican immigrant- was a major figure whose militant verses urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination. His poems expressed that pain of life in the black ghettos and the strain of being black in a world dominated by whites.

Langston Hughes
Missouri-born who was the movement’s best known poet. Many of his poems from the 1920s described the difficult lives of working-class African Americans. Some of his poems moved to the tempo of jazz and blues

Paul Robeson
the son of a one-time slave, became a major dramatic actor. His performance in Shakespeare’s Othello was widely acclaimed. Struggled with the racism he experienced in the United States and the indignities inflicted upon him because of his support of the USSR and the Communist Party.

Louis Armstrong
In 1922, joined Oliver’s group (Creole Jazz Band), was a famous trumpet player. His talent rocked him into stardom in the jazz world. Famous for his astounding sense of rhythm and his ability to improvise, made personal expression a key part of jazz. Joined Fletcher Henderson’s band, and went on to become the most important and influential musician in the history of jazz.

Duke Ellington
a jazz pianist and composer who led his ten-piece orchestra at the Cotton Club. Won renown as one of America’s greatest composers, with pieces such as “Mood Indigo” and “Sophisticated Lady.”

Bessie Smith
a female blues singer, the outstanding vocalist of the decade. Recorded on black-oriented labels produced by the major record companies. Achieved enormous popularity and in 1927 became the highest-paid black artist in the world.

Colonial American Poetry

Elate
make someone really happy

Faction
small organiaed group that disagrees with the larger group thats normally in pokotics

languished
suffer from being forced to be in an unfamiliar situation

strain
to force oneself to make a large effort

Redress
a remade or payment for a wrong

Tyranny
cruel and oppressive government rule

Peruse
Examine carefully or at length

Deplore
feel or express strong disapproval of something

Diabolic
belonging to or so evil as to call the devil

Despotism
a political system where the ruler holds absolute power in cruel and oppressive way

Examples of Simile, Metaphor, Mood, Imagery, visualize, metaphor, theme

Lines
Poems are written in lines (which do not have to be complete sentences)

Alliteration
The use of words that begin with the same sound in the same line (only words that begin with consonants, not vowels)

Examples of alliteration
Ex: The woods are lovely, dark and deep. (the d-sound)
Ex: Diamonds from the deepest ocean (the d-sound)
Ex: We were wandering through the woods. (the w-sound)

Mood
The feeling expressed in a poem

Example of mood
Ex: In “Spanish Boots of Spanish Leather”, the mood is heartache, sadness, and loss because the woman is sailing away and the lovers are being separated.

Visualize
When you picture or imagine something in your mind

Example of visualizing
Ex: When I read the poem “Mother to Son”, I visulaize an ugly, broken-down staircase that is dark and dangerous to climb.

Imagery
When an author uses language in a poem that has to do with the 5 senses (seeing, hearing tasting, touching, and smelling)

Example of imagery
Ex: In the poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”, the line “He gives his harness bells a shake” makes me imagine the sound of bells ringing on a silent night.

Simile
Comparing two things using the words like or as

Example of simile
Ex: “I stretch my arms as wide as the sky like a hawk extends her wings” (comparing arms to the sky and to a hawk’s wings).

Metaphor
Comparing two things without using the words like or as

Example of metaphor
Ex: “If dreams die, life is a broken-winged bird that cannot fly”(comparing a bird that can’t fly to life without dreams).

Theme
The main point or message in a poem

Example of theme
In the poem “Spanish Boots of Spanish Leather”, the theme is that sometimes the person we love doesn’t love us in the same way and we have to let them go and move on.

Poetry Analysis Terms

paraphrase
whats going on in the poem?

connotation
rhetorical or literary devices

allusion
the passing reference or indirect mention of another piece of work

antithesis
two opposing ideas in a grammatically parallel sentence

apostrophe
direct address of an absent or imaginary person or of a personified abstraction

alliteration
the repetition of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of two or more words

assonance
the repetition of the same vowel sound usually at the beginning of words

diction
an author’s choice and phrasing of words(words create “fairytale” feel?)

hyperbole
exaggeration

metaphor
a comparison between unlike things without the use of “like” or “as”

simile
a comparison between unlike things using the words “like” or “as”

meter
the pattern of stressed & unstressed syllables in a poem

rhythm
the pulse or beat in a line of poetry; the regular recurrence of an accent or stress. LIke the rise & fall of our voices.

metonymy
the use of the name of one thing for that of another, of which it is an attribute or with which it is associated

synecdoche
a part of something is used for the whole (all hands on deck)

onomatopoeia
words whose pronunciations suggest their meaning (buzz, meow)

personification
giving inanimate objects human characteristics (the wind roared)

point of view
the vantage point from which a poem is told

rhyme scheme
arrangement of rhymes in a poem/stanza; indicated by the use of letters (a/a/b/b/c/d/c/d)

slant rhyme
partial or imperfect rhyme that often uses assonance (dry and died, grown and moon)

repetition
repeating of a word or phrase that the author considers important

symbolism
something that stands for or suggests something larger or more complex

attitude or tone
the author’s attitude toward the subject matter; think of the author’s “tone of voice”

shifts
changes in speakers and in attitudes may be found by looking at key words,punctuation, changes in line/stanza length or diction

title
examine now on an interpretive level. What does it mean?

theme
idea or point of a story, formulated as a generalization; there may be several. Always write as a complete sentence.

New American Poetry and Realism

William Dean Howells
1837-1920

Frank Norris
1870-1902

Henry James
1843-1916

Fredrick Douglas
Battle with Mr. Covey

Bret Harte
Wrote about accounts of interesting people around the country

William Dean Howells
Father of Realism

William Dean Howells
Editor of the Boston magazine The Atlantic Monthly

Frank Norris
The Octopus – struggles between farmers and the railroad

Henry James
Considered America’s greatest psychological novelist

William Dean Howells
Believed realism should depict the lives of ordinary people. be faithful to the development of character even at the expense of action, and reveal the strength of good over evil

Frank Norris
Interested in the impact of large social forces on individuals

Henry James
Novels took place in Europe – believed European society was more sinister and complex than American society

Frank Norris
His novels examined social institutions

William Dean Howells
Though life was merely foolish and flavorless

Henry James
psychological realism, pits an American facing the complexities of European society and either defeats or is defeated by them

Frank Norris
Believed human behavior was determined by forces beyond the individuals power

Bret Harte
Wrote about the gold rush

Fredrick Douglas
A slave who became a free man and educated himself

Mark Twain
Samuel Clemens

William Dean Howells
Practiced “smiling realism”
portrayed Americans as foolish but good people which allowed them to win in the end

Ambrose Bierce
Muckraking reporter; got a reputation of being extremely bitter

Stephen Crane
died at the age of 29

Willa Cather
Won a Pulitzer Prize for My Antonia

Willa Cather
From Nebraska (the Frontier)

Stephen Crane
Pioneer of Impressionism and Naturalism

Bret Harte
Known as a regionalist because he wrote about the west

Bret Harte
Has a war of words with Mark Twain

Fredrick Douglas
For women’s rights. freedom of speech, and the end of capital punishment

Kate Chopin
Labeled as an anti-feminist

Kate Chopin
From Missouri, moves to LA after marriage

Stephen Crane
Did not experience the Civil War but writes about it based on Matthew Brady’s photographs

Kate Chopin
Known for The Awakening

Ambrose Bierce
Fought in the Civil War
Sited 15 times for bravery

Bret Harte
Believed in the good hero always prevailing

Ambrose Bierce
The Devil’s Dictionary

Ambrose Bierce
Mysterious death, probably died in the Mexican Revolution

Kate Chopin
Irish Catholic

Mark Twain
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn – Masterpiece

Walt Whitman
1819-1892

Emily Dickinson
1830-1886

Poetry Interactive Notes

Form
The appearance of the words on the page.

Line
Group of words arranged together.

Stanza
a group of lines arranged together

Rhythem
the beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem

End Rhyme
a word at the end of none line rhymes with on word at the end of another line

Internal Rhyme
a word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line

Rhyme Scene
A Rhyme scheme is a pattern of a rhyme (usually end rhyme)

meter
a patter of stressed and unstressed syllables

Free verse
Does not have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables and does not have rhyme

onomatopoeia
words that imitate the sound they are naming

alliteration
consonant sounds repeated at the beginning of words

concence
similar to alliteration EXCEPT …the repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words

assonance
repeated vowel sounds in a line or lines pf poetry

refrain
a sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem

narrative poem
a poem that tells a story

lyric poem
expresses an emotion/ idea or describes a scene

Haiku
a Japanese poem written in three lines with 5, 7, 5 syllable structure

concrete poem
the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem

ballad
a narrative, rhyming poem or song; characterized by short stanzas and simple words, usually telling heroic and or tragic story. v

limericks
funny 5 line poem, lines 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 rhyme aabba

simile
figure of speech of comparing things. ex: “she is as beautiful as a sunrise”

metaphor
ex: “all the world’s a stage, and we are merely players”

hyperbole
exaggeration ex: “I’m going to DIE of embarrassment”

personification
a thing/ animal given human-like qualities or an object given life-like qualities ex: “the flowers danced in the breeze”

symbolism
when a person, place, thing, or event that has a meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else

allusion
is a reference to something famous

imagery
language that appeals to the senses

Creative Writing, Poetry Unit

diction
word choice

denotative
literal meaning of the word

connotative
figurative meaning, as well as overtones and nuances that a word or phrase suggests

implications
layers that lie beneath the surface,

tone
poems attitude towards the subject

cliches
stale, familiar words, phrases, and metaphors

obscurity
unclear

ambiguity
poem’s ability to offer more than one plausible reading at a time

personification
treating something inanimate as if it had the qualities of a person

English Sonnet

couplet
two rhyming lines

meter
measurement; poet makes a measure of a beat

syllable-stress

foot

iamb

iambic

monometer
a line consisting of one foot (one metrical unit)

diameter
a line of two feet

substitution
another kind of foot replaces the an iamb in a line

Trochee (trochaic)
stressed syllable followed by unstressed syllable: TUM te; as this foot is just an inverted iamb, it is sometimes called an inversion.

Spondee (spondaic)
two stressed syllables together: TUM TUM.

Pyrrhic
two unstressed syllables: te te; usually appears with a spondee.

Anapest (anapestic)
two unstressed

Myles Hilbert, Poetry Unit Lit Term Cards

alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds

Example: “bugles blowin” in “Danny Deever” by Rudyard Kipling is an example of alliteration.

allusion
A brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance.

Example: “knight-at-arms” in “La Belle Dame Sans Merci” by John Keats is an example of allusion because that was a term used in their culture in that certain time period.

allusion

assonance
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity

Example: The phrase, “continue cutting” is an example of assonance because the o and u sound in the poem “Reapers” by Jean Toomer.

assonance

connotation
An idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning

Example: The word “Universe” in the poem by Stephen Crane, invokes a feeling that makes me feel very small compared to everything else.

connotation

consonance
Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity.

Example: In the poem, “Reapers” by Jean Toomer, “steel on stones” is an example of consonance because the t sound after both of the s sound is repeated.

consonance

denotation
The dictionary definition of a word

Example:
hagĀ·gard
?ha??rd/
adjective
1.
looking exhausted and unwell, especially from fatigue, worry, or suffering.

denotation

diction
A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words

Example: In the poem “Theme for English B”, by Langston Hughes, the very personal word choice like I and adding the age, gives the poem its own meaning.

diction

hyperbole
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor

Example: “I felt the life sliding out of me” is an extreme exaggeration, or hyperbole, in the poem “Making a Fist”, by Naomi Shihab Nye.

hyperbole

imagery
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)

Example: “The sound of steel on stones”, is an example using the sense sound, that was written by Jean Toomer in the poem “Reapers”

imagery

metaphor
A comparison of two unlike things without using “like” or “as”

Example: The poem “Making a Fist” by Naomi Shihab Nye, uses the metaphore “My stomach was a melon split wide inside my skin.”

metaphor

onomatopoeia
A word that imitates the sound it represents.

Example: Boom and Crash are examples of onomatopoeia.

onomatopoeia

personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, qualities or attitudes

Example: In the poem by Stephen Crane personification is used when the universe is able to talk which is a human quality.

personification

repetition
Repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis

Example: The word “we” in the poem “We Real Cool” by Gwendolyn Brooks is repeated 8 times which puts an emphasis on the word.

repetition

rhyme
Correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, especially when these are used at the ends of lines of poetry.

Example: In the English sonnets like the ones by William Shakespeare, the rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.

rhyme

rhythm
Pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables

Example: In English sonnets like the ones by William Shakespeare, each line has 10 syllables which is an example of a steady rhythm.

rhythm

simile
A comparison using “like” or “as”

Example: “My mistresses eyes are nothing like the sun.” is an example of simile using like or as in the “Sonnet 130” by William Shakespeare.

simile

speaker/persona
A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective (real or imagined) is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing

Example: In “Theme for English B”, the speaker is Langston Hughes, the author, who is writing his theme.

speaker/persona

symbolism
Something that represents something else

Example: The fist in Naomis Shihab Nye’s poem “Making a Fist” is a symbol of holding on through life’s journeys.

symbolism

theme
Central idea of a work of literature

Example: The theme in the poem by Stephen Crane is existence.

theme

thematic statement
An interpretive statement articulating the central meaning or message of a text

Example: Even if you are cool, you may not make the correct and best decisions. That is the thematic statement for “We Real Cool” by Gwendolyn Brooks.

thematic statement

tone
A writer’s attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels.

Example: The tone in “La Belle Dame Sans Merci” by John Keats goes from really joyfully to very Erie after the dream is explained.

tone