chpt 7 literature

anapest
A metrical foot of two unaccented syllables followed by an accented syllable (for example, the word “jamboree”)

assonance
The repetition of vowel sounds within a line, sentence, or stanza. Assonance may be internal (for example an “a” sound in the middle of consecutive words), or it may occur toward the end of lines to prompt a rhyme

blank verse
Lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter. The dominant metrical form of many of Shakespeare’s plays

caesura
A strong pause or break within a line of verse. From the Latin for “cutting off.”

couplet
Two rhymed lines of verse. Couplets may occur as a part of a stanza or may be self-contained and set away from the rest of the text. In this case, the two rhymed lines would be referred to as a closed couplet.

dactyl
One stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables (for example, the word “syllable,” “admiral,” or “carousel”).

dimeter
A line of poetry consisting of two metrical feet.

end rhyme
A true rhyme, which sounds much like an echo of similar sounds. For example, the rhyming of tense/defense or pure/cure

end stopped line
A line of verse that ends with a period, colon, or semicolon.

enjambment
Occurs when one line in a poem runs on to another without pause or punctuation.

feminine rhyme
Two-syllable rhymes in which the last syllables are unstressed such as flying/crying.

foot
The smallest unit of verse in a poem. A foot is usually composed of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. Some different kinds of metric feet include anapest, iamb, dactyl, trochee, and spondee.

heptameter
Verse line that consists of seven metrical feet

heroic couplet
Lines of iambic pentameter that rhyme aa bb cc and so forth. Often these couplets are closed or end stopped.

hexameter
A line of verse that is composed of six metrical feet

iamb
A metrical foot consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable (for example, the word “today” or “defer”)

internal rhyme
Two or more words in a line of poetry that rhyme within the line itself rather than at the end of lines.

masculine rhyme
Occurs when the last stressed syllable rhymes, as in dog/fog.

meter
Recurring patterns of syllables in lines of verse. These syllables may be either stressed or unstressed. Each metrical unit is called a foot; basic accented patterns include iambs, trochees, anapests, dactyls, and spondees.

monometer
Verse line that consists of one metrical foot.

near rhyme
Also referred to as eye rhyme, slant rhyme, or approximate rhyme. Examples include the near rhyming of the words jail/jewel and close/lose.

nonameter
Verse line that consists of nine metrical feet.

octameter
Verse line that consists of eight metrical feet

off rhyme
Also known as oblique rhyme. Occurs when words of marginal structural relationship are made to function as a rhyme. Often the rhyme will be approximate since the syllables in the words meant to rhyme will not match completely. For example, a poet might use the off rhyme pearl/alcohol.

pentameter
A line of poetry that contains five metrical feet

petrarchan sonnet
Also referred to as an Italian sonnet. The Petrarchan sonnet begins with an eight-line segment or octave with a rhyme scheme abbabba followed by a sestet (six-line segment) with a rhyme scheme that varies (often cdcdee or cdecde). Usually, this type of sonnet will have turning point, or narrative turn, after the first two quatrains and before the concluding sestet.

poetic line
A unit of poetry consisting of words and phrases that are printed on one line of a page

quatrain
A set of four lines, such as the two sets of four lines that form the opening of a Petrarchan sonnet

rhyme
Words with repetitions of the final stressed vowel sounds and any sounds following (for example, cat/rat and debate/relate)

rhythm
The quality created by the relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables. A regular pattern of alternation between stressed and unstressed Unlawful syllables produces meter.

scansion
A system of reading, charting, or identifying the underlying beat or meter of a poetic work.

Shakespeare an sonnet
Also referred to as the English, or Elizabethan, sonnet. Arranged as three quatrains (four line segments) and a couplet. The typical rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg

sonnet
A crafted fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter. There are many different types of sonnets (Petrarchan, Spenserian, Shakespearean, etc.)

spondee
Two consecutive stressed syllables (for example, the word “baseball” or “daylight”).

stanza
A group of lines in a poem that have either a structural, topical, or metrical relationship; often stanzas will possess a certain metrical and rhyme scheme that will be repeated or varied in later stanzas of the poem.

stress
Accent or emphasis that makes one syllable stand out from others in a word or phrase

tetrameter
Verse line that consists of four metrical feet.

trimeter
Verse line that consists of three metrical feet.

trochee
A metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable (for example, the word “master” or “movie”).

verse
A term that is often used interchangeably with “poetry” but also refers to a stanza of a poem.

Identify the internal forms of poetry
traditional form and the open form, Rhyme, meter, and stanza shape traditional form. Many of the poems you read that were written prior to the early twentieth century will contain strongly metrical lines of verse, regularizing the natural rhythms of language. A poetic line is one unit of a poem A line may be one letter long, indented, centered, aligned in a specific way with surrounding lines, etc. Also, meter is described in terms of the number and pattern of stresses per line.

Identify the internal forms of poetry
A stanza is a group of one or more poetic lines surrounded by white space.there may be a significant shift in the poem’s content at that point. enjambment over the stanza break, which is interesting and worth analyzing in the context of the poem in which it appears. Rhyme schemes are described in terms of the pattern of end rhymes in a single stanza.A regular couplet is composed of two lines of rhyming verse. A closed couplet is essentially one sentence (two lines) ending with a period. heroic couplets, lines of iambic pentameter that are rhymed and are usually end stopped. look at the lines of the poem. If they end in a period, semicolon, or colon, the lines are said to be end stopped. If they continue on into the next line, they are said to be enjambed, or have enjambment.

define rhyme and list and describe the various types of rhymes
Rhyme is the similarity between syllable sounds usually at the end of two or more lines. A rhyme bonds two or more lines by final syllables that start out differently but end alike. Rhyme serves as the most visible sign of the poem’s shape, structure, and pattern. Rhyme also helps a poet measure off lengths of verse, setting up recurrent points of rest. It also helps to establish a basic rhythm. The major types of rhyme are feminine, masculine, internal, near , and off rhyme.

feminine rhyme
Also called double rhyme, feminine rhyme occurs when the last two syllables of words rhyme, with the second to last syllable stressed and the last syllable unstressed, like being/seeing, ocean/motion, started/parted, (re)peated/(de)feated. More unusual are triple rhymes—three-syllable rhymes with stress on the first of the three, like beautiful/dutiful.

masculine rhyme
Also called normative or traditional rhyme, repeated last syllable that is accented, like see/me or find/mind. These masculine or single rhymes are the most common rhymes. Only the beginning of the syllable varies while the rest stays the same: high/sky, leave/grieve, stone/own. The term “masculine rhyme” is rarely used except in comparison with feminine rhyme. Masculine rhyme is considered the norm in rhyme schemes

internal rhymes
Rhyme is most common and most expected at the ends of poetic lines but can occur elsewhere. Internal rhymes are rhyming words that are in the same line together. Often, one is at the midway point just before a pause or at the end of a grammatical unit. Internal rhyme tends to segment the line, so it is more often used in long lines than in short ones. It may be used for emphasis.

near rhymes
As their name suggests, near rhymes nearly rhyme. These are words whose spellings would lead one to think that they rhyme (i.e., tough/cough/ love/move, daughter/laughter). There may be a difference in the vowel sound or in the consonants. In near rhyme, the last or the second-to-last syllable may be a little different. This type of rhyme is also known as slant, eye, or approximate rhyme.

off rhyme
With off rhyme, the words themselves might be said not to rhyme at all outside the context of the poem. Yet because the poem is following a particular rhyme scheme, often words will be paired and said to rhyme simply because of their placement in the poem. To identify this kind of rhyme, you will essentially be looking for a place where a rhyme should appear but doesn’t and then will attempt to see some rhyming connection between the words—either through a vaguely similar consonant sound or a close vowel sound

Explain the process for interpreting rhyme schemes.
A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyme that exists in a particular poem or the pattern that is required by a form of poetry such as the sonnet. Rhyme schemes are diagrammed, or outlined, with letters standing in for the rhyming sounds.

Explain how to identify the rhyme scheme of a poem.
1st line will be identified as “a.” If the second line happens to rhyme with line 1, then it too will be given an “a.” If not it will be labeled as “b.” if a line doesn’t rhyme, then move on to the next letter.sounds you at first thought were new rhymes are actually near rhymes with some other lines. If it makes a better pattern and is plausible, you may find that some of the lines don’t rhyme with anything. (One book about poetic forms calls nonrhyming lines “x.” You may want to do the same.)

Explain how to identify the rhyme scheme of a poem
Once you know the rhyme scheme, you can often identify poetic forms, such as a sonnet or ballad. Different poetic forms have different conventions for content, so you can analyze the relationship between the specific poem and the rules of its form. Or having found the rhymes and their pattern, you might look at the rhyming words to see what they have in common and why the poet is choosing to emphasize them.

Describe the use of stress in poetry.
stress is organized and much more patterned than in normal speech or in most prose writing. The variations individuals and dialect make on how syllables are stressed make real patterns of stress complex. divide all syllables into 2 categories: stressed and unstressed. Finding stresses is the necessary first step to identifying metric patterns and thus understanding the poet’s use of form. The rhythm of English poetry is based on its stress patterns and line breaks, so to discuss the rhythm, you need to be able to find the stresses.

Define meter, and explain its use in poetry.
rhythm of successive lines becomes regular and predictable,called meter. Meter regularizes the rhythms of natural speech. In poems employing traditional meter, the stressed syllables set up a regular beat. Figuring out the meter of a poem gives you info about the poetic form. many forms require a particular meter. poet puts important words in spots where the meter will emphasize them. Particular meters have particular sounds, too, and there may be some onomatopoeia at work in the poet’s choice of meter.

Explain versification, and list the Greek names for the lines of different length.
Meter is the combined product of the chosen kind of foot multiplied by the number of feet per line. To label kinds of meter, we identify the dominant kind of foot and then identify the number of feet.structural form of a verse is revealed by scansion. lines of different length: Monometer: 1 foot. Dimeter: 2 feet. Trimeter: 3 feet. Tetrameter: 4 feet. Pentameter: 5 feet. Hexameter: 6 feet. Heptameter: 7 feet. Octameter: 8 feet. Nonameter: 9 feet.

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