Art of Literature: Poetry

The voice the poet wants to be heard

For lines whose subject matter is trite and whose rhythm and sounds are monotonously heavy-handed

A prose restatement of central ideas of a poem in your own language

Words made from the letters of other words, such as read and dare

A central idea or meaning

Narrative Poem
Poem that tells a story

A long narrative poem on a serious subject chronicling heroic deeds and important events

The choice of words

Poetic Diction
18th Century, very elevated

Formal Diction

Middle Diction
Common words, less formal, some education

Informal Diction
Dialect, conversational

Literal meaning of the word

The words that go along with the literal meaning

Things that could be interpreted many different ways

Reference to anything, uses that word for larger meaning

Language that addresses the senses

Figures of Speech
A way of saying one thing in terms of something else

Makes an explicit comparison between two things by using words such as like, as, than, appears, or seems

Makes a comparison between two unlike things, but it does so implicitly without words such as like or as

Implied Metaphor
It does not explicitly identify the man with a mule, it hints at the mule

Extended Metaphor
Which part or all of the poem consists of a series of related metaphors or similes

Controlling Metaphor
When comparisons are at work throughout the entire poem

A play on words that relies on a word having more than one meaning or sounding like another word

Figure of speech in which part of something is using to signify the whole “wagging tongue” = gossip

Something closely associated with a subject is substituted for it

The attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things

An address to either someone who is absent and who cannot hear the speaker or to something that is nonhuman and cannot comprehend

Overstatement and Hyperbole
Adds emphasis without intending to be literally true

Says less than is intended

Statement that initially appears to be self-contradictory

Condensed form of paradox in which two contradictory words are used together

The narration is restricted to one single meaning

Cosmic Irony
Uses God, faith. . .to ridicule characters, people in general

Almost a song, alternating eight and six syllable lines

The recurrence stressed and unstressed sounds

Places more emphasis on one syllable than the other

Rhythmic pattern of stresses recurs in a poem

All the metrical elements in a poem

Measuring the stresses in a line to determine its metrical pattern

Metrical unit by which a line of poetry is measured

Iambic Pentameter
The iambic rhythm of this line falls into five feet

Rising Meter
Iambic and Anapestic, they move from unstressed to stressed

Falling Meter
Trochaic and Dactylic

Measured by the number of feet it contains

Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter

A two syllable foot in which both syllables are stressed

Foot which consists of two unstressed syllables

Masculine Ending
A line which ends with a stressed syllable

Feminine Ending
A line that ends with an extra stressed unstressed syllable

A pause within a line

Running over from one line to another

Fixed Forms
Can be categorized by the patterns of its lines, meter, rhymes, and stanzas

Open Form
Do not conform to established patterns of meter, rhyme, and stanza

14 lines, “little song”, iambic pentameter usually

Italian Sonnet
Two parts, octave (abbaabba) or sestet

English Sonnet
Four part organization

Nineteen lines, six stanzas, five tercets and concluding quatrains

Brief, pointed, witty poem, most rhyme and written in couplets

Light and humorous, five lines rhyming aabba, lines 1, 2, and 5 contain 3 feet, while 3 and 4 contain 2

Seventeen syllables organized into 3 unrhymed lines of 5, 7, 5 syllables

Serious topic, formal tone, no formal pattern

Those Winter Sundays
Author-Robert Hayden
“fearing the chronic angers of that house”
Last two lines, dad makes quiet sacrifices
Love is difficult and it doesn’t come easy
Speaker wishes he could go back with the knowledge he has now

Dogs Death
Author-John Updike
“Good Dog! Good Dog!”
“And her heart was learning to lie down forever”
Speaker is the father of the family

Oh, Oh
Author-William Hathaway
Hell’s Angels (motorcycle group)
Growling (noise of the motorcycle)
Couple is very young (“my girl and I” “When I hear trains at night I dream of being president” “The choo-choo light is on”)

Mountain Graveyard
Author-Robert Morgan
Whole thing is an anagram
stone notes (head stones) slate tales (name and more) sacred cedars (big, green year round) asleep please (person is old and ready to die)
spore prose?

Author-E.E. Cummings
leaf falls (lead of a family tree falling off-dying)
lyric poem

Introduction to Poetry
Author-Billy Collins
Being constricted-can’t think outside the box
Don’t force meaning out of it, experience it

Magic of Love & Love Poem
Magic of love is very cliche, Hallmark
Love Poem is not as positive
Nothing is not as goos as Magic of Love
They’re sharing things, whats his is whats hers

We Real Cool
Author-Gwendolyn Brooks
They’re having fun but they’e going to die soon
People who have no specific purpose other than playing pool
A lot of alliteration
Rhymes, repeats
How these certain people won’t have the opportunities that others do…they’re always going to be left out in society
The Golden Shovel “the pool hall” the shovel that is going to bury them
Her attitude toward the poem is almost anger, these young men are not going to survive

We Old Dudes
Author-Joan Murray
Tone is humorous
“We soon dead”…ya well thats coming kind of attitude

The Larynx
Author-Alice Jones
Describing the wind pipe
The poem is shaped like a larynx
The entire poem was all one sentence

Author-William Carlos Williams
Image of a cat automatically appears in your head
The movement of the poem

Calvary Crossing a Ford
Author-Walt Whitman
Soldiers passing through a river
Going from battle to battle
The colors contradict the words
The soldiers are happy, their clothes are clean
Flags for different units of the army

Poetry Should Ride the Bus
Author-Ruth Forman
Poetry should be happy like people in a crack house
Life stages…Hopskotch to Grandkids
Speaker is an old lady, its her growth from a young girl to an old woman
Tone…Happy, kinda sarcastic, everything can be more optimistic and more beautiful than it really is
Diction…comings and goings very informal

Dulce et Decorum Est
Author-Wilfred Owen
It is sweet and sitting to die for ones country..WW1
Poisoned gas…thick green smog…incurable…violent suffering, only war gas was used

On the Differences between Poetry and Prose
Author-T.E. Hulme
Language and Imagery, what separates the two
Poetry is more abstract, prose is more concrete
Poet keeps you interested, interact

How Poetry Comes to Me
Author-Gary Snyder
Verbal irony

Making it in Poetry
Author-Bob Hicok
Verbal Irony
What actually happens in poetry

Author-Jim Stevens
Repetition “It was the house that suffered most” 2x, beginning and end

Scarborough Fair
End line was always the same
“Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme”
One of the oldest poems

Player Piano
Author-John Updike
Player piano is one that play themselves
Internal Rhyme

The Trains
Author-William Heyen
About the Holocaust
Outrageous, maybe we’re blind to some of these things
The camps 3 syllables sound like the freight car

A Bird Came Down the Walk
Author-Emily Dickinson
A lot of imagery
Sense movement in the poem
Everything cohesive, nature is one
Plashless, made up word

The Word Plum
Author-Helen Chasin
Descriptive about the word itself
Isn’t sending a message, expressing an event

Delight in Disorder
Author-Robert Herrick
Iambic Pentameter

The Lamb & The Tyger
Author-William Blake
Trotaic Pentameter
AABB rhyme scheme, masculine
Tone, Lamb is gentle, Tyger is harsh and evil
They tie into one another

The Facebook Sonnet
Author-Sherman Alexie
Ending is powerful
Couldn’t stop at the end of each line

Unholy Sonnet
Author-Mark Jarman
Unexpected ending line
Religious practices don’t change man based things
Saying church can’t change who you are
Octave first person, sestet is second person

Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
Author-Dylan Thomas
Speaker doesn’t want them to die
He’s using the word rage as compassion
Overall metaphor days in is death
Apostrophe is father
Pun is grave men
Highly structured
Oxymoron blinding sight

Epitaph on a Waiter
Author-David McCord
When you’re waiting for a refill but your waiter never comes

There Was a Young Lady Named Bright
Authors-Arthur Henry and Reginald Butler
very light

In Medias Res
Author-Michael McFee
Belly’s hibernation, poem takes shape
It’s how life is

Directions for Resisting the SAT
Author-Richard Hague
Telling kids that it sucks and to not put too much emphasis on this test
He assumes everyone hates the SAT, and that everyone stresses out about it

Death Be Not Proud
Author-John Doone
Old english poem
Not afraid of death because you leave a legacy and its inevitable (death)

After a Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes
Author-Emily Dickinson
Dickinson see’s death in a different way
Imagery is prevalent

I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died
Author-Emily Dickinson
Fly’s are attracted to dead meat, dead bodies
Fly has a buzz, conscientious
Using the fly to replace her savior, she’s doubting revelation

Because I Could Not Stop for Death
Author-Emily Dickinson
“He kindly stopped for me”
Has no fear of death, slowly drove, slow death?
Swelling of the ground=grave
Religious, but religious ideas were not what people of her time thought

I Dwell in Possibilities
Author-Emily Dickinson
Always more possibilities

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