AP Lit Fundamentals of poetry

Meter
The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables established in a line of poetry.

Accented
The stressed syllable is also called _______ syllable.

Unaccented
The unstressed syllable is also called _________ syllable.

Foot
A unit of meter. Can have two or three syllables. One accented and one or more unaccented.

Line
May have one foot or two feet etc.

Iambic, Trochaic, Anapestic, Dactylic, Spondaic, Pyrrhic
Types of Metrical feet, 6 of them.

Iambic
The _____ foot is a two-syllable foot with the stress on the second syllable. The _____ foot is the most common foot in English.
ex: a book|of ver|ses un|der neath|the bough.

Trochaic
The ___ foot consists of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable.
ex: Dou ble,|Dou ble,|toil and|trouble, Fire|burn and|cauldron|bubble

Anapestic
The _____ foot consists of three syllables with the stress of the last syllable.
ex: With the sheep|in the fold|and the cows|in their stalls.

Spondaic
The ____ foot consists of two stressed stables. Compound words are examples of _____. They are used for variation.
ex: Heartbreak, childhood, football.

Dactylic
The _____ foot contains three syllables with the stress on the first syllable.
ex: Love again,|song again|nest again,|young again.

Pyrrhic
The _____ foot consists of two unstressed syllables. The type of foot is rare and is found in interspersed with other feet.

Monometer
One-foot line

Dimeter
Two-foot line

Trimeter
Three-foot line

Tetrameter
Four-foot line

pentameter
Five-foot line

Hexameter
Six-foot line

Heptameter
Seven-foot line

Octometer
Eight-foot line

Rhymed Verse
Consists of verse with end rhyme and usually with a regular meter

Blank Verse
Consists of lines of iambic pentameter without end rhyme.

Free Verse
Consists of lines that do not have a regular meter and do not contain rhyme.

Rhyme
Is the similarity of likeness of sound existing between two words. A true _____ should consist of identical sounding syllables that are stressed and the letters preceding the vowels sounds should be different. Fun=Run.

End Rhyme
Consists of the similarity occurring at the end of two or more lines of verse.

Internal Rhyme
Consists of the similarity occurring between two or more words in the same line of the verse.

Masculine Rhyme
Occurs when the last two syllables of a word rhymes with another word. Bend=Send, Bright=Light

Feminine Rhyme
Occurs when the last two syllables of a word rhyme with another word. Lawful=awful, Lighting=Fighting.

Triple Rhyme
Occurs when the last three syllables of a word or line rhyme. Victorious=Glorious, Ascendency=Descendency, Quivering=Shivering, Battering=Shattering.

Rhyme Scheme
The pattern or sequence in which the rhyme occurs. The first sound is represented or designated as A, the second is B, etc. When the first sound is repeated, it is A also.

Alliteration
Is the repetition of the initial letter or sound in two or more words in a line of verse.
ex: A TuTor who TooTed the fluTe.

Onomatopoeia
The use of a word to represent or imitate natural sounds.
ex: buzz, zoom, pow.

Consonance
the repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words.
ex: Such a tide aS moving SeemS aSleep.

Refrain
The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of the stanza. The refrain often takes the form of a chorus.

Repetition
The reiterating of a word or phrase within a poem.

Simile
A direct or explicit comparison between two usually unrelated things indicating a likeness or similarity between some attribute found in both things.

Metaphor
Simile with no like or as.

Personification
The giving of human characteristics to inanimate objects, ideas, or animals.

Synecdoche
the technique of mentioning a part of something to represent the whole. “All hands on deck!”

Metonymy
The substitution of a word naming an object for another word closely associated with it. “Pay tribute to the crown.”

Symbol
A word or image that signifies something other than what it literally represents.

Allegory
A narrative or description having a second meaning beneath the surface one.

Overstatement (litote)
is an exaggeration for the sake of emphasis and is not to be taken literally.

Understatement (hyperbole)
Consists of saying less than one means, or of saying what one means with less force than the occasion warrants.

Antithesis
Is a balancing or contrasting of one term against another. “Man proposes, God disposes.”

Apostrophe
The addressing of someone or something usually not present, as though present.

Dramatic Irony
A device by which the author implies a different meaning from that intended by the speaker.

Irony of Situation
A situation in which there is an incongruity between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate or between what is anticipated and what actually comes to pass.

Verbal Irony
A figure of speech in which what is meant is the opposite of what is said.

Paradox
A statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements.

Oxymoron
A compact paradox, a figure of speech that combines two contradictory words, placed side by side.

Stanza
A division of a poem based on thought or form.

Couplet
Two-lined stanza

Triplet
Three-lined stanza

Quatrain
Four-line stanza

Sestet
Six-line stanza

Septet
Seven-line stanza

Octave
Eight-line stanza

Heroic Couplet
Closed Couplet, consists of two successive rhyming verses that contain a complete thought within the two lines. Usually iambic pentameter

Terza Rima
is a three-line stanza form with an interlaced or interwoven rhyme scheme. Usually iambic pentameter. a-b-a, b-c-b, c-d-c, d-e-d.

Limerick
A five-line nonsense poem with an anapestic meter. The rhyme scheme is usually a-a-b-b-a. The first, second, and fifth lines have three stressed; and the third and fourth have two stresses.

Ballad Stanza
Consists of four lines with a rhyme scheme of a-b-c-d. The first and third lines are tetrameter and the second and fourth are trimeter.

Rime Royal
Is a stanza consisting of seven lines in iambic pentameter rhyming a-b-a-b-b-c-c. It is called so because King James 1 used it.

Ottava Rima
Consists of eight iambic pentameter lines with a rhyme scheme of a-b-a-b-a-b-c-c. It is a form that was borrowed form the Italians.

Spenserian Stanza
A nine-line stanza consisting of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by an alexandrine, a line of iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme is a-b-a-b-b-c-b-c-c. The form derives its name from Edmund Spenser, who initiated the form from his Faerie Queene.

Sonnet
A fourteen-line stanza form consisting of iamvic pentameter lines. The two major sonnet forms are the Italian (Petrarchan) and the English (Shakespearean) sonnet.

Petrarchan
Sonnet divided usually between eight lines called the octave, using two rimes arranged a-b-b-a-a-b-b-a, and six lines called the sestet, using any arrangements of either two or three rimes: c-d-c-d-c-d and c-d-e-c-d-e are common patterns.

Shakespearean
Sonnet is composed of three quatrains and a concluding couplet, riming a-b-a-b c-d-c-d e-f-e-f g-g.

Villanelle
Consists of five tercets and a quatrain in which the first and third lines of the opening tercet recur alternately at the end of the other tercets and together as the last two lines of the quatrain.

Elegy
Usually a poem that mourns the death of an individual, the absence of something deeply loved, or the transience of mankind.

Lyric
The most widely used type of poem, so diverse in its format that rigid definition is impossible. Limited length, intensely subjective, personal expression of personal emotion, expression of thoughts and feelings of one speaker, highly imaginative, regular rhyme scheme.

Ode
an exalted, complex rapturous lyric poem written about a dignified, lofty subject.

Allusion
a reference in literature or in art to previous literature, history, mythology, current events, or the Bible.

Anachronism
an element in a story that is out of its time frame; sometimes used to create a humorous or jarring effect, but sometimes the result of poor research on the author’s part.

Anecdote
A short and often personal story used to emphasize a point, to develop a character or a theme, or to inject humor.

Antecedent
the word or phrase to which a pronoun refers.

Aphorism
A terse statement that expresses a general truth or moral principle; sometimes considered a fold proverb.

Archetype
A character, situation, or symbol that is familiar to people from all cultures because it occurs frequently in literature, myth, religion, or folklore.

Conceit
A far-fetched comparison between two seemingly unlike things; an extended metaphor that gains appeal from its unusual or extraordinary comparison.

Connotation
Associations a word calls to mind-what a word suggests beyond its basic definition (denotation).

Enjambment
in poetry, the running over of a sentence from one verse or stanza into the next without stopping at the end of the first. When the sentence or meaning does stop at the end of the line it is called -End Stopped Line.

Imagery
Anything tha affects or appeals to the reader’s senses: sight (visual), Sound (auditory), Touch (tactile, Taste (gustatory), or smell (olfactory).

Narrative Poem
A poem that tells a story.

Parable
A short story illustrating a moral or religion lesson.

Parody
A comical imitation of a serious piece with the intent of ridiculing the author or his work.

Pastoral
A poem, play or story that celebrates and idealizes the simple life of shepherds and shepherdesses. The term has also come to refer to an artistic work that portrays rural life in an idyllic or idealistic way.

Pun
Humorous play on words that have several meanings or words that sound the same but have different meanings.

Satire
The use of humor to ridicule and expose the shortcomings and failings of society, individuals, and institutions, often in the hope that change and reform are possible.

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