Why did John Winthrop write “A Model of Christian Charity”?
To establish the tenets of a Christian community
What three reasons did Puritans have for spending time writing?
to instruct, guide: the sermon, with three parts: a text, an exposition, and an application.
to record an examine their public experiment: histories, journals, biographies.
to examine their own spiritual life and eal with “familiar” matters: diaries, autobiographies, poetry
In “A Model of Christian Charity” what does Winthrop mean when he says, “…some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in subjection.”?
He believes that God ordained the class system.
What were two common themes found in early Puritan writings?
idealism and pragmaticism
With which religion was John Winthrop associated?
What are the 5 Basic Puritan beliefs?
Total Depravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistible Grace, Perseverance of the “saints”
What are three things that Puritans did not believe in?
religious tolerance; authoritarian political structure; their intent to found a new nation
What was the function of the Puritan writer?
To transform a mysterious God; to make Him more relevant to the universe; to glorify God.
What did Puritans see as the importance of the sermon?
a persuasive tool, a way for the speaker/writer to demonstrate his rightful claim of authority
With which religion was William Bradford associated?
Edward Taylor’s work as a poet was generally unknown during his lifetime. Only some parts of his poems and letters that he had written to, or for, Boston friends were published during his lifetime. In what year, or time period, did Taylor’s work become public knowledge and published?
Taylor’s works were discovered in the late 1930’s and published in 1930.
With whom did Edward Taylor have a long-running controversy regarding the Lord’s Supper and who should be allowed to participate?
In her poem “The Prologue”, Anne Bradstreet ends the work with what tone in Line 46?
A well hidden, but sarcastic tone
Edward Taylor writes in what dialect?
His boyhood dialect
In her poem “The Prologue”, Anne Bradstreet references the muse of epic poetry, Calliope, in Line 33. What was her purpose in doing this?
Bradstreet referenced Calliope to prove her point that not only men can write poetry. This reference was very sarcastic.
Without her knowledge, who had Anne Bradstreet’s manuscript collection of her poetry printed? Where was the collection printed and in what year?
Bradstreet’s brother-in-law, John Woodbridge, had her manuscript published in London in 1650.
Edward Taylor’s best verse is to be found in a series of poems entitled what?
Who or what does Anne Bradstreet reference when in Lines 19 and 20 of “The Prologue” she states, “Nor can I, like that fluent sweet tongued Greek, Who lisped at first, in future times speak plain.” ?
Bradstreet is referencing Demosthenes, a Greek orator who overcame a speech impediment by placing pebbles in his mouth and talking to the sea.
Although Anne Bradstreet is a Puritan writer, she is the first in a long line of American poets who took their consolation not from theology, but from what?
the “wonderous works”
What proved to Anne Bradstreet finally that God exists?
that God exists was not proven to Bradstreet through her reading, but the evidence of her own eyes
Taylor’s poem, “God’s Determinations” is written in the tradition of what style literature?
written as a medieval debate
What is The Tenth Muse?
The Tenth Muse was the first published volume of poems written by a resident in the New World and was widely read.
Which author travelled to England and Scotland, delivered some three hundred sermons and collected nearly twelve hundred pounds only to return from England to find his family sickly and living in extreme poverty due to his absence? The author thought he had made arrangements with a trusted mentor to care for his family while he worked to raise money for a charity school.
Which author is viewed as either the last great Puritan writer, or the first American Romantic author?
The revitalization of spirituality and religious enthusiasm that swept through the American colonies from 1734 until around 1750 is referred to as what and which author was an instrumental leader of this religious fervor?
This period of new religious fervor has been called the “Great Awakening”, and in its early years Jonathan Edwards was a stand out leader of the movement.
Which author stated, “I grew convinc’d that Truth, Sincerity, and Integrity in Dealings between Man and Man, were of the utmost Importance to the Felicity of Life, and I form’d written Resolutions to practice them ever while I lived.”?
Most of the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment believed that after God had created the universe, He left it strictly alone. What is this theory called?
The Age of Reason/Age of Enlightenment was a period in history when philosophers emphasized the use of what as the best method of learning truth?
The use of reason was the best method of learning truth.
The period of history known as The Age of Reason, or Age of Enlightenment, began in the __________ and lasted until the late ____________.
1600’s – 1700’s
Franklin formed a debating society that he called what?
The leaders of the Age of Reason relied heavily on the scientific method, with its emphasis on experimentation and careful observation. The period produced many important advances in such fields as what?
anatomy, astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and physics
A Short Narrative of My Life was written by Samson Occom in 1768 and was recovered from library archieves and available in a published edition only since what year?
In what style was Benjamin Franklin’s The Autobiography written?
urbane, humorous, and self-aware
According to Deism, God regulated nature so that it proceeds mechanically. Future events are therefore fully predictable on the basis of earlier events. These philosophers liked to compare the universe, or think of the universe as a what?
As a clock that keeps perfect time because it was designed by a superior clockmaker.
What characterizes most of Jonathan Edwards’ sermons?
Most of Edwards’ sermons are characterized by a desire to make salvation emotionally and aesthetically appealing to his listeners.
What institution of higher learning was established and built using the money earned by Samson Occom?
Which author is the grandson of the famous Reverend Solomon Stoddard?
Which author was a Mohegan?
What three things did Jonathan Edwards’ writing convey, or articulate?
(1) a complex synthesis of traditional Puritan piety
(2) Enlightenment beliefs in the potential of the human will
(3) an almost mystical appreciation of natural beauty
Which author died on July 4, 1826, exactly 50 years to the day that the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress?
What three things may “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine strike the reader as?
a verbal revolution, an affirmation of plain speech and simple language, as well as the principles of the rebellion against England
According to Paine, what is “society”?
everything constructive and good that people join together to accomplish
Thomas Paine was born in England to a ___________ father and an ________ mother.
Quaker and Anglican
What are “The Federalist Papers”?
a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution
In what publication do you find the first line, “These are the times that try men’s souls”?
The American Crisis, No. 1
According to Paine, what was the definition of “government”?
an institution whose sole purpose is to protect us from our own vices
What was “The American Crisis No. 1” and what was its intent?
the first in a series of essays meant to boost morale and exhort the revolution
Which author’s autobiography included two draft versions of “The Declaration of Independence”?
As a child, Thomas Paine experienced what and why?
Injustice because of the social caste system
It is stated that Phillis Wheatley was a remarkably intelligent child, that she came to know the Bible well, and that three English poets touched here deeply and exerted a strong influence on her verse. Who are the three English poets that so deeply impacted Phillis Wheatley’s life and therefore, her written works?
The three English poets were Milton, Pope, and Gray
What did Phillis Wheatley do in 1778 that changed the course of her life?
She married John Peters, an intelligent but irresponsible free black man who eventually abandoned her
A present day reconsideration shows Wheatley to be a bold and canny spokesperson for what two issues?
her faith and her politics
Incorporating the vocabulary and ideals of the Enlightenment–particularly the belief that sentiment linked all human beings and thus argued for the university of human rights–for whom did Equiano speak?
Equiano spoke for the countless disenfranchised and exploited workers who’s labor fueled the new mercantilism
Where was Olaudah Equiano born?
Equiano was born in what is present day Nigeria.
Phillis Wheatley discussed the issues of slavery with Samson Occom.
What do scholars agree upon about Equiano and his origin?
Scholars agree that Equiano himself left conflicting evidence about his origins.
How old was Phillis Wheatley when her book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral was published in London?
Phillis Wheatley was either nineteen or twenty years old when her book was published in London.
Where was Phillis Wheatley born?
Wheatley was born in Africa, probably in present-day Senegal or Gambia.
With the publication of Wheatley’s Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., has argued, “Wheatley launched two traditions at once.” What were the two traditions?
The black American literary tradition and the black woman’s literary tradition
When Murray “unmasked” Mr. Vigilius, why did she claim that she had chosed to hide her identity?
Murray explained that she had hidden her identity and her sex because she feared if it were common knowledge that she was a woman her writing would not be taken seriously.
Murray wrote didactic essays. What is a didactic essay?
Didactic essays are written for the purpose of instruction, or to teach.
What three points does Murray argue in her essay “On the Equality of the Sexes”?
at present, women are weaker in judgment than men
if women were educated like men, then their minds would be identical
that educated women would not abandon their traditional female duties
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What did Murray find her most important subject to be?
the independent female mind
Were Murray’s essays found in The Gleaner ever reprinted?
The Gleaner was reissued in 1992.
What pseudonym did Judith Sargent Murray use?